The W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Ranch Part 12 – The New Arabians of 1930

The W.K. Kellogg Arabian
Horse Ranch Part 12 –
The New Arabians of 1930

By Carol Woodbridge Mulder © 1990
**originally published in the May-June 1990 The Crabbet influence in Arabians Today magazine

The W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Ranch manager, Herbert H. Reese, was not only an astute and well educated horseman, manager, businessman, and gifted horse breeder, but was also a born horse trader. In 1930 there were so few Arabians in the United States-less than 800 living animals-that, despite the depression, buyers were to be found for most of the few Arabs which were available for sale. Thus, Mr. Reese and Mr. Kellogg not only continued to buy Arabians useful to the ranch breeding program, but also bought some individuals for the specific purpose of resale.

Seven Arabians were bought by the Kellogg Ranch in 1930, but only three of them were incorporated into the Kellogg breeding pool.

The first purchase, in the spring, was from Mr. W.A. Breckenridge.

Saracen 422
Age 10. Chestnut gelding foaled March 2, 1920. Abeyan Sherrak. Bred by F.E. Lewis II, Spadra, California. Sire: Harara 122, by *Deyr 33 (desert bred x desert bred) out of *Haffia 45 (Hamdani of the Anazeh x *Abeyah 39). Dam: Samit 153, by *Kusof 35 (desert bred x desert bred) out of *Haffia 45 (Hamdani of the Anazeh x *Abeyah 39). Sire Line: *Deyr 33. Family: *Abeyah 39.

Mrs. Betty Bassett boarded her mare and filly at the Kellogg Ranch. Mr. Reese was so favorably impressed with the mare, Leila, that when Mrs. Bassett was ready to sell the pair in May the Kellogg Ranch bought them for $6000; this was an enormous sum of money in 1930 and is a strong indication of Mr. Reese’s opinion of Leila.

Leila 275
Age 13. Chestnut mare foaled May 16, 1917. Maneghi Hedruj. Bred by S.C. Thompson, San Francisco, California. Sire: El Jafil 74, by *Ibn Mahruss 22 (Mahruss II x *Bushra 23) out of Sheba 19 (Mannaky Jr. 292 x *Pride 321). Dam: Narkesa 7, by Anazeh 235 (*Leopard 233 *Naomi 230) out of *NAomi 230 (Yataghan x Haidee). Sire Line: Barq. Family: Haidee

Alilatt 632
Age 3. Brown filly foaled March 4, 1927. Maneghi Hedruj. Bred by Betty Bassett, San Luis Obispo, California. Sire: Saraband 423, by Harara 122 (*Deyr 33 x *Haffia 45) out of Sedjur 193 (*Hamrah 28 x Aared 91). Dam: Leila 275, by El Jafil 74 (*Ibn Mahruss 22 x Sheba 19) out of Narkeesa 7 (Anazeh 235 x *Naomi 230). Sire Line: *Deyr 33. Family: Haidee.

In August, during a buying trip to the east, Mr. Reese bought two mares and a stallion from Colonel Gordon Hunter of Hartford, Connecticut. These two animals had previously been owned by the Fred Stone family of New York. They arrived at the Kellogg Ranch in California on November 9, 1930.

Narkhaleb 114
Age 19. Chestnut stallion foaled June 6, 1911. Maneghi Hedruj. Bred by Meldrum Gray, Columbus, Ohio. Sire: Leucosia 50, by *Haleb 25 (desert bred x desert bred) out of Narkeesa 7 (Anazeh 235 x *Naomi 230). Dam: Khaletta 9, by Khaled 5 (*Nimr 232 x *Naomi 230) out of Nazlina 6 (Anazeh 235 x *Nazli 231). Sire Line: *Haleb 25. Family: Haidee.

Sanma 411
Age 10. Bay mare foaled June 24, 1920. Seglawi Al-Abd. Bred by Hingham Stock Farm, Hingham, Massachussetts. Sire: Maleik 61, by *Haleb 25 (desert bred x desert bred) out of *Abeyah 39 (desert bred x desert bred). Dam: Sankirah 149, by *Hamrah 28 (Hamdani of the Anazeh x *Urfah 40) out of Moliah 109 (*Hamrah 28 x *Wadduda 30). Sire Line: *Haleb 25. Family *Wadduda 30.

Carolstone 637
Age 5. Chestnut mare foaled March 17, 1925. Abeyan Sherrak. Bred by Hingham Stock Farm, Hingham, Massachussetts. Sire: Kilham 408, by *Hamrah 28 (Hamdani of the Anazeh x *Urfah 40) out of Killah 103 (*Gomusa 31 x *Hadba 43). Dam: Dehaff 414, by *Deyr 33 (desert bred x desert bred) out of *Haffia 45 (Hamdani of the Anazeh x *Abeyah 39). Sire Line: Hamdani of the Anazeh. Family: *Abeyah 39.

During the same eastern trip Mr. Reese acquired the mare Mariam. Her previous owner had been unable to pay for her and Mr. Reese apparently got her for the amount owing-$250. She was part of the shipment which arrived at the Kellogg Ranch on November 9, 1930.

Mariam 181
Age 15. Chestnut mare foaled June 30, 1915. Kehilan Ajuz. Bred by W.R. Brown, Berlin, New Hampshire. Sire: *Abu Zeyd 82, by Mesaoud (Aziz II x Yemameh I) out of Rose Diamond (Azrek x Rose of Jericho). Dam: Nanda 15, by *Garaveen 244 (*Kismet 253 x Kushdil) out of *Nejdme 1 (desert bred x desert bred). Sire Line: Barq. Family: *Nejdme 1.

Saracen, a double grandson of *Haffia and a grandson of *Kusof, whose blood is not as frequently seen as that of some of the other Davenport import stallions, had clearly been bought for resale. He seems to have been sold from the Kellogg Ranch during the year of his purchase. The 1934 stud book lists his owner as Dr. Guy L. Bliss, Long Beach, California.

The coveted Leila went into the Kellogg broodmare band and proved herself a matron of rewarding capability. For the Kellogg Ranch she produced three foals of merit by Hanad 489 and Ralet 759. She was sold in the spring of 1938, at age 21, to Fred E. Vanderhoof, Woodlake, California, who bred one more foal from her sired by Jadaan 196.


**All of the articles included in the newly re-launched site from the original website, Georgia Cheer, Silver Monarch Publishing and The Crabbet Influence magazine are shared here with permission of Georgia Cheer on May 16, 2012.**

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This Was Carl Raswan

This Was Carl Raswan

By Alice Payne
**originally published in The Arabian Horse News Nov/Dec 1966 issue

Carl Raswan
Carl Raswan in Bedouin regalia

Carl Raswan, born March 7, 1893, at Castle of Reichstedt, near Dresden, Germany, died October 14, 1966, at Santa Barbara, California

Carl, without a doubt in my opinion, had more influence on Arabian horse breeding than any man, living or dead. The part he played in saving the classic Arabian horse is well known in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa. World politics did not chain him. He was equally known on both sides of the Iron Curtain. His knowledge was sought after all over the world. To the very end he was helping people world-wide in selecting animals, planning breeding and making importations. In the past he had been involved with the Brown, Dickenson and Kellogg importations into this country. In fact, he organized the Kellogg stud.

He imported horses from the desert for Americans, South Americans and Europeans. Carl wrote many books and articles about the Arabian Horse and the Bedouin, who survived because of the courage and strength, intelligence and endurance of his horse. The greatest contribution was his “Index,” for which he gathered information for 28 years. It required 11 years for him and his wife Esperanza to compile this information. In order to accomplish this, they isolated themselves in Mexico City and worked under the greatest of handicaps. This “Index” is now a living thing. Six volumes are out so far, and a seventh is in the process.

Carl was a gentle, kindly and humble man, dedicated to truth, especially about the Arabian horses. This later caused him to become the center of a fiery controversy. Even so, I personally never heard him say one unkind thing about anyone, even his bitterest critics.

During the 30’s and 40’s several stimulating articles appeared by Carl Raswan in the “Western Horseman” and other journals. These contained explanations, figures, photos, charts and descriptions regarding the breeding and pedigrees of Arabian horses. In fact, these articles stimulated me with a desire to know this man whose experiences were so vast and explanations so logical. I went to New Mexico with another Arab enthusiast to meet him. He was the most enthusiastic person I had ever met. His knowledge overwhelmed me. Carl had the ability to transmit this enthusiasm to others. He taught me simple ways to judge an Arabian and categorize them according to family stains. We talked for hours. When it came time to leave I looked up on the hill behind the stable and remarked: “Oh, you also raise Thoroughbreds!” “No, no,” he explained, “those are Mu’niqi. You must see!” He then brought these down and showed me the difference in head, legs and the hock structure, etc. From that time I never deviated from approaching an Arab in the manner which he taught me.

Carl was a dedicated man. He did not hesitate to tell what he believed to be the truth. I found his advice to be sound. Whenever I used a line of breeding which he had warned me against, sooner or later something undesirable turned up. So I learned to request his advice before making a purchase. I can truthfully say that I owe any success I might have as a breeder to Carl, and I am sure many others feel the same way.

I have been told that recently in Germany, Russia and Eastern Europe, renaissance among Arab breeders has occurred, and Carl’s teachings have become an accepted method of breeding. In Poland they said Carl was the first to bring from the desert any workable and concrete evidence as to the existence of family strains. He never referred to this as “Raswan’s theory,” but humbly passed it on as knowledge he had gained from the tribes.

As a horse photographer there was none equal to Carl. His ability as an author is displayed by the numerous editions of “Drinkers of the Wind” and other books. He used the scholarly form of Arabic in his Index. He was very facile in several languages: English, French, Spanish, German, Arabic and others.

Carl spent years in the desert with the tribesmen. Incidentally, his death was caused by silicosis (coal miner’s disease) which he acquired as a result of having been in sand storms with the Bedouin.

Carl met the great, the near-great and the lowly, and was the same gentle man with all these people. He gave untiringly of his time and knowledge to each and everyone who sought it. *RAFFLES, for example had been in this country five years before Carl could persuade American breeders to use him on purebred Arabian mares of the Kehilan family. His first colt was INDRAFF, the horse that became a legend in his own time. there are many, many other examples.

Carl put in endless hours on pedigrees for others. To offers of payment, his reply would be: “No, God gave me this gift and I cannot sell it.” Needless to say, he died a very poor man as far as material wealth is concerned — but not so, spiritually!

Carl Schmidt, his name by birth was given up when his horse *RASWAN was killed. At that time he said: “*RASWAN shall not die — I shall write under his name.” He then had his name legally changed to Raswan — in memory of a horse.

His life was filled with exciting adventures. In addition to his exploits in Arabia, he fought with the Turks at Gallipoli, was captured by the Polish reds in 1918 at Warsaw, imprisoned in 1937 by Hitler’s S.S. and served with the British Intelligence during World War II.

Carl’s wife Esperanza deserves much praise and credit, as she worked side by side with him on his “Index” and his later works, some of which have not been published — such as his auto-biography and Vol. VII of the “Index.” She is made of the stuff of which angels are made. He also leaves two dear and very young daughters, Chela and Beatriz.

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Corollaries of Strain Breeding – Part 1

Corollaries of Strain Breeding – Part 1

By Charles C. Craver
**originally printed in Arabian Visions March 1991 issue

Carl Raswan
Carl Raswan

One of the reasons many Arabian breeders are fascinated by strain breeding theory is that it provides a logical approach to the understanding of Arabian horse pedigrees. It reduces them to simple terms from which evaluations and predictions can be made. For some people the evaluations and predictions are useful. For others they are not. In either case, they are arrived at by a process of reason.

Strain breeding didn’t start out as a logical exercise. Until the 1920’s, almost everyone who wrote about the Arabian horse in Arabia observed that the Bedouin horse breeding tribes had different families of horses which they called strains. Such observations, which extend at least until 1970, occur in the works of Burkhardt, Guarmani, Upton, the Blunts, Skene, Tweedy, Davenport, Raswan, Brown, Zientarski, H.R.P. Dickson, Forbis, and others.

These people all had first-hand experience observing the Arabian horse in its native environment. They described the overall breed as divided into strains, and they obviously seemed to think that the strain names described different types of horses. Few such observers thought of the subject of Arabian strains as a subject of logical analysis. To them, it was simply a fact that the Arabian breed was divided into different breeding groups which were identified by strain names.

However, as Arabian horse breeding has become established outside of Arabia, mostly in Egypt, England, the Americas, and Europe, there has been a tendency for breeders to lose sight of basic Bedouin concepts of breeding. One of the first such concepts to be lost was that of strain breeding. It was not well understood outside of Arabia at best. A worse reason for ignoring it was that a number of breeders who set the tone for writing on the subject of Arabian horse breeding came to the conclusion that, after generations of ignoring strain considerations and other standards of Bedouin breeding, Arabian strain concepts no longer fit Arabian horses.

This position has too often been both right and wrong. Wrong because some of these people did not understand Arabian strains well enough to know when they were active in a pedigree and when they were not. They didn’t even understand what they were rejecting. Right because it is indeed true that Arabian breeding has arrived at a point where there are many registered Arabian horses which are so far removed in type and pedigree from the Arabian horse of Arabia that Bedouin standards no longer apply to them, including strain standards. For such horses, it is not reasonable to think in terms of strain breeding.

By the 1920’s, most writers on the subject of Arabian breeding were thinking mainly about “breeding the best to the best” and trying to produce good cavalry horses. About that time a young German immigrant to this country, Carl Raswan (born Carl Schmidt), began a lifelong career as a horseman and writer in which he presented a theory as to how Arabian strains could be used to produce certain types of Arabian horses.

Raswan repeatedly made the point that he had not invented his version of strain breeding. As evidence, he referenced written testimony of Bedouin breeders of historic record — italics– Western Horseman: “Pure Strains of Arabians,” (pages 42-44) as well as his own contacts with Bedouin breeders in Arabia, where he had traveled extensively, and his study of Arabian breeding outside of Arabia. Thus, his contribution to strain breeding theory was presented as a matter of restatement, systematization, and interpretation.

Raswan had no monopoly on strain-breeding theory. Other people have had their own ideas on the subject and conducted excellent breeding programs based upon them. Polish breeding, for instance, is said to place importance on strain-breeding principles, and Raswan maintained that, by his criteria, Lady Wentworth was, in effect, a closet strain breeder, a proposition which she articulately denied.

American breeders have used strain breeding of one form or another from the time of our very first American breeder, Randolph Huntington. Other Americans who strain bred were Homer Davenport, Peter Bradley, Alice Payne, John Doyle, Jane and Carl Asmis, numerous breeders associated with Al Khamsa-type horses, and a multitude of people who deliberately or not, followed concepts of type and pedigree which amount to strain breeding. The concepts of strain breeding have been widely observed in the United States. They are not unusual, esoteric, or extreme. But sometimes they are not recognized.

Raswan’s version of strain breeding was unusual in that it was comprehensive for Arabian breeding. It was not universally accepted in the Arabian horse community. It offended some people, perhaps because it did not treat their horses well. Others did not follow its logic, and some simple didn’t agree with it.

Raswan himself was a persuasive personality and a convincing writer, but his work lost some public credibility because his lifestyle was unconventional, and because from time to time he made statements about Arabian horse breeding which he perhaps understood but appeared to be contradictory to some people. Also, he had the disadvantage of publishing over a period of forty some years. During that time there were changes of position, sometimes based on normal thought development, and sometimes on new information such as constantly turns up concerning Arabian horses. It is very difficult matter for an author to be completely consistent over such a long period of time.

Over the years, a number of critics have rejected Raswan strain theory because they disagreed with his stand in favor of purist breeding. The two were not the same at all and, in fact, the strain theory provides a means of correcting what Raswan felt to be mistakes in purist breeding so that they no longer have practical effect.

In spite of criticism, Raswan’s concept of strain breeding received wide distribution among Arabian breeders, with some finding it convincing and others being less attracted to it. In recent times, a resurgence of interest seems to be in process. Perhaps this results from the increasing tendency at our Arabian horse shows and in pictures in our national magazines, for the Arabian horse as registered to look less and less like what people recognize as a real Arabian horse. Strain-breeding theory is perceived as offering a program for returning to a recognizable type of Arabian horse.

There are several basic propositions upon which Raswan’s theories of strain breeding are based. These have been described numerous places and will be listed here with only brief explanations. Readers who desire more detail are referred first of all to Raswan’s own written work, of which perhaps the most convenient instance is The Raswan Index. A survey of the subject was included in “Kissing the Frog Prince,” by the present writer in Arabian Visions, May and June issues of 1989.

Proposition 1: The horses bred by the Bedouins of Arabia could be classified as belonging to three major strain groups:1) the Kuhaylan group: “Strength-type: masculine, muscular, wide across back, croup, chest, neck, forehead, and broad across forearm and gaskins. Even the mares are muscular-masculine; 2) the Saqlawi group, tending to have high neck and tail carriage: “Beauty-type: feminine, elegant, fine boned, extremely handsome. The Parade and Show Type. Even the stallions are extremely beautiful-feminine,” 3) the Mu’niqi group, “the Angular-Race-type: with long lines (long back, long neck, long legs, and long, narrow head), also taller than the ‘Classic’-type-Arabian and also coarser (often ugly in appearance and in temperament).” (Strain descriptions from The Arab and His Horse, page 28.)

Each breeding group has other distinctive details as well, concerning which, the reader is referred to Raswan’s work. There was at least one possible exception to the classification of Arabian strains into three breeding groups, and that concerned the Hadban strain. In personal conversation, Raswan said this strain was neither Saqlawi, Kuhaylan, or Mu’niqi, but that horses of this strain crossed best with those of Kuhaylan bloodlines. However, in his Western Horseman article “The Head of the Arabian,” and in the table of strains published by the same magazine in the article “Undistinguished Types of Arabian Horses,” he gives the Hadban and Kuhaylan strains as related, as he does in The Arab and His Horse, page 28, and elsewhere.

It ought to be kept in mind that by classifying the multitude of Arabian strains into three major breeding groups, Raswan was not indicating that individual strains within each breeding didn’t have their own characteristics. On the contrary, he obviously felt that the separate strains within the larger breeding groups had distinctive features. These are described in detail in the section titled “Arabian Strains” in The Raswan Index.

Proposition 2: Bred within their own divisions of the three breeding groups, Arabian horses tend to produce according to their groups. Thus Saqlawi bred to a Saqlawi, tends to produce a Saqlawi. A Kuhaylan bred to a Kuhaylan, tends to produce a Kuhaylan. A Mu’niqi bred to a Mu’niqi tends to produce a Mu’niqi.

Proposition 3: The Kuhaylan and Saqlawi strains are related, and when individuals of these strains are bred to each other, harmonious, attractive individuals result which may lack the extreme features of either parent strain, but are recognizable of “Classic” Arabian type.

Proposition 4: The Mu’niqi strain is fundamentally unrelated to the Kuhaylan and Saqlawi strains. When individuals of it or other unrelated bloodlines are crossed with Kuhaylan and Saqlawi bloodlines, “classic” Arabian type deteriorates. It was Raswan’s theory that the lack of type in many Arabian horses of his time as a writer (roughly 1925 to 1966), was the result of unsuccessful crosses between the Mu’niqi and the Kuhaylan and Saqlawi breeding groups.

The propositions given here as the basics of Raswan strain theory provide an interesting tool for analyzing the Arabian horse as a breed. By themselves, however, they are not very useful in guiding actual Arabian breeders in production of Arabian horses according to predictable patterns. They are simply too general to have much specific application: it is fine to know that there are different major families of Arabian horses, but that does not tell how to plan flesh-and-blood matings between horses.

Raswan, C.R., The Arab and His Horse, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 55-11083.
Raswan, C.R., The Raswan Index. Published in several editions. References here are given by topic rather than page number as a convenience to readers.
Raswan, C.R., A Collection of Articles by Carl Raswan, a private republication by Alice L. Payne and her son Robert of articles by Carl Raswan originally appearing in Western Horseman magazine.
Raswan, C.R., “Key” to Arabian Pedigrees. Originally copyrighted in 1956, this document was later incorporated into The Raswan Index.

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Corollaries of Strain Breeding – Part 2

Corollaries of Strain Breeding – Part 2

By Charles C. Craver
**originally published in Arabian Visions April 1991 issue

*Farasin (Rasim x *Ferda) photo courtesy Mary Jane Parkinson

Corollary 1: The female side of a pedigree is more important than the male side. In marking pedigrees of specific horses, Raswan typically called special attention to the occurrence of patterns on the female side of a pedigree. Thus, for the present writer, the presence of Kuhaylan elements on the female side of the pedigrees of Dharebah and Dharanah were especially noted. In a letter dated February 12, 1952, to Dr. J.L.Doyle, he wrote, “the important line is of the Dam,” In his “Key” to Arabian Pedigrees” he makes references to the special importance of the influence of the dam’s side of the pedigree as applied to all three strain-breeding groups. This, of course, is consistent with the Bedouin breeding practice of tracing strain inheritance through the dam.

Corollary 2: Arabian type is influenced by strains according to their proportional importance in a pedigree. In evaluating a specific pedigree, Raswan typically calculated the percentages of the major strains present. Individuality of the horse was considered in large part to be represented by the majority strain influence present. He made the point that this might be different from the actual tail-female strain of the pedigree, which technically determines an animal’s strain of registration. In this way, Farana, a registered Mu’niqi, is shown to be predominantly Kuhaylan. Ronek was described as “A registered Saqlawi, but by pedigree he proves to be 7/8 Kuhaylan and only 1/8 Saqlawi.” (Western Horseman: “Undistinguished Types of Arabian Horses”). As Arabian strains have developed in complex modern pedigrees, the actual tail-female strain of an Arabian horse seldom indicates the predominant strain in its pedigree.

Corollary 3: After enough removal, the strain of a given ancestor no longer contributes to individuality. In his Western Horseman article “Breeding to Arabian Type.” Raswan writes, “When we come to five generations (or more) removed from unrelated strains, we enter the domain of the perfect Arabian horses. They are practically (and for many reasons) as good as those who never carried a drop of unrelated blood.” As applied to modern breeding, this corollary effectively removes concern which most breeders might have for Mu’niqi elements in their horses’ pedigree. The fact is that Mu’niqi influence in most modern bloodlines traces to very remote pedigree elements which have seldom concentrated in their descendents. They are usually to far back to count for much, if anything. Some of the best domestic American bloodlines are Mu’niqi in tail-female and are therefore of that strain, as far as registration is concerned. This is seldom the predominant strain in their pedigrees and has little if any relationship to how they appear or how they breed.

The same lack of concern is not necessarily warranted for other “unrelated” pedigree elements.

Corollary 4: When animals of mixed strains background but of the same strain are bred to each other, classic type intensifies. This was the basis of “pure-in-strain” breeding, which consisted of breeding animals of the same strain to each other. Raswan maintained that “Orthodox Bedouins always bred Arabians pure in the strain!” (Western Horseman “Pure Strains of Arabians.”) He felt that “plus points” accumulated in working towards the reappearance of classic Arabian type for each generation of breeding in a pedigree in which animals of the same strains were bred to each other through the sixth generation of breeding. (“‘Key’ to Arabian Pedigrees”) ” ‘Fanatics’ aim at purity of strain…by faithful adherence to the same strain. When that one particular strain has been used throughout five generations, an Arabian horse of the original type of the desert has been recreated.” (From Western Horseman, “Breeding to Arabian Type.”)

Corollary 5: The Kuhaylan and Saqlawi strains are related and their type characteristics are complementary. Somewhat in contradiction to corollary 4 above, in personal conversation as in some of his written work, Raswan maintained that the Kuhaylan and Saqlawi strains were very much alike with only minor differences and that they could be bred to each other to produce an ideal Arabian.” … The mixing of the two classic-antique types, (1) the Kuhaylan (including its substrains) and (2) the Saqlawi (including its substrains), does no harm, as far as Arabian characteristics, harmonious proportions, symmetrical lines and the balance of the whole horse are concerned.” (Western Horseman “Related Strains of Arabians”)

In personal conversation and in letters, Raswan sometimes recommended this type of crossing as he did to the present writer, to Dr. J.L.Doyle, and to Alice Payne. It is the writer’s impression that the cross between *Mirage and *Raffles bloodlines initiated at the Selby Farm in the 1930’s and subsequently followed at Never Die Farm and elsewhere, was in part at least the result of Raswan’s thought and/or recommendation. He sometimes used *Mirage as an example of Saqlawi type and *Raffles as an example of Kuhaylan type.

Corollary 6: Classic Arabian type emerges as the percentage of Mu’niqi of unrelated ancestry diminishes. “The most amazing improvements occur when Arabians are at least four generations removed from any unrelated blood.” (Western Horseman: “Breeding to Arabian Type”). In chart form, Raswan’s “‘Key’ to Arabian Pedigrees” establishes a graduated system of points of evaluation in which points of merit are subtracted according to how many Mu’niqi ancestors appear in the first six generations and added according to the number of generations the subject of a pedigree is removed from Mu’niqi ancestry.

Corollary 7: Physical type of an individual can be evidence of its strain background. This is illustrated by a passage from manuscript in the Pritzlaff collection: “Each strain with its families is individually different… a Bedouin could without difficultly place a blooded Arabian stallion or mare in his or her different strain, because the distinctions of outward conformity are striking to the accustomed eye. Likewise, the Arabian horse which comes of a mixed strain can be judged outwardly according to its descent, and a practiced eye can establish the various strains of the sires and grandsires…” In 1925, Raswan wrote a letter to W.R.Brown, which is also included in the Pritzlaff Collection: “If a Bedouin would come to your tent in the desert and ask for a fast enduring horse to save his life from a well mounted pursuer and you would offer him 3 mares to pick from: a Saklawi, a Kuhailan, a Miniqi-he would pick the Kuhailan Mare as sure as she would have to have 4 legs and he would not need to ask you which one was the Kuhailan mare, as he would know her from her looks and conformation!!”

Corollary 8: Strain breeding is not restricted to the production of “classic” Arabian type. Raswan’s theory also was applicable to the production of “non-classic” types, if the definition of “classic” is taken to be the picture-book kind of pretty Arabian. From the Richard Pritzlaff collection, in personal notation on the margin of pages torn out of Lady Wentworth’s The Authentic Arabian, he indicates that the Mu’niqi mares *Ferda and *Farasin were included in his famous 1926 importation from Crabbet to the Kellogg Farm, because he “planned to cross these Mu’niqiyah mares to a Mu’niqi stallion in America (and could not get a pure Mu’niqiyah mare from Lady W. or anybody else in England and had to take what would match the Mu’niqi stallions in America.” (Underlining Raswan’s). Unfortunately, such matings were not done, but at a later date he was successful in carrying out or arranging breedings which concentrated the Mu’niqi strain. The writer has seen an example of the produce of this breeding, and it was, sure enough, recognizably what Raswan had described as Mu’niqi.

Raswan’s theory as to the influence of Mu’niqi pedigree elements is also useful in accounting for achieving certain desired results in modern Arabian breeding which are apart from goals of strictly “classic” breeding. Some of the features of Mu’niqi influence are very attractive to modern breeders, especially in the show context. Increased size, longer legs, longer necks, exaggeration of tail carriage, racing rear leg structure, and extra elements of “flash” are all components of individuality which can be enhanced by a level of influence of Mu’niqi or certain other blood that is unrelated to the Kuhaylan and Saqlawi strains.

Strain theory shows how such pedigree elements can be used to furnish these features and at the same time preserve some of the “classic” features of Arabian type, such as a pretty head and general “Arab” character. The trick is to have the sources of these elements close enough in a pedigree to have the desired effect, but far enough back so that the animal produced is attractive and balanced. A number of major current breeding programs are successful in achieving this balance.

What has been presented in this article is a version of elements of Raswan strain theory. Another writer on the same subject might well come up with a somewhat different account, but any person seriously attempting to represent Raswan’s work of record would at least have to give consideration to the main points stated here.

Would Raswan have agreed with the present article? Perhaps not. He was a man of extremely complicated thought processes. Although he had the gift of appearing to write very clearly, his work was by no means simple or easy to understand. Probably no one completely understood Raswan but Raswan.

It would be convenient if Raswan’s strain theory could be “proven.” That is unlikely to ever happen in any logical sense because of the difficulty of stating his thoughts in empirically verifiable format. Furthermore, the objects from which his theory was primarily derived, namely the Arabian horses of tribal life in Arabia, no longer exist as Raswan wrote about them. Current verification of the basic observation upon which his theory is based is therefore unlikely.

Whether Raswan’s strain theory can be “proven” is really not of importance for most Arabian horse breeders. The important thing is that it presents a way of breeding and understanding Arabian horses which is effective in producing good results for breeders. Many people over the years have used it either knowingly or otherwise and been well rewarded. It would be difficult for the theory to fail in application, because it involves so many elements which are simply common sense, practical applications of genetic principles, such as are used by good breeders of many kinds of livestock.

An example of this is the emphasis on the female side of a pedigree. Almost every cow-man know that his best calves come from a certain few cows in his herd. That is not considered strain theory: just a fact of life. Another example of common sense in Raswan strain theory is the importance given to the actual observable results of strain breeding. People expect such results, and use them as a check on strain procedures. It is also a matter of common sense as well as accepted genetic expectation, that animals of fixed-type reproduce themselves when bred to each other. Just about every breeder of purebred livestock must be aware of this. Another almost universally accepted basis of livestock breeding is that, as pedigree elements become distant, they become less important.

In general, much of Raswan’s application of strain theory was based on simple, logical principles of breeding. They were useful, and, if they were not technically provable, they were not different in this from most other of the “principles” of everyday living upon which we depend for all kinds of guidance. Most of us don’t know what makes the car go, apples fall, medicine work, and the banks stay open. Our lack of perfect knowledge does not keep us from making useful decisions about such events, not does it prevent us from using strain-breeding concepts as tools in the production of better Arabian horses.

Raswan, C.R., The Arab and His Horse, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 55-11083.
Raswan, C.R., The Raswan Index. Published in several editions. References here are given by topic rather than page number as a convenience to readers.
Raswan, C.R., A Collection of Articles by Carl Raswan, a private republication by Alice L. Payne and her son Robert of articles by Carl Raswan originally appearing in Western Horseman magazine.
Raswan, C.R., “Key” to Arabian Pedigrees. Originally copyrighted in 1956, this document was later incorporated into The Raswan Index.

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The Horses of the World

The Horses of the World

by Lady Wentworth
**originally published in Western Horseman March/April 1946 issue
(An Answer to Carl Raswan’s: Davenport vs Blunt Arabians)

Lady Wentworth inspects four of her Arabian stallions, with Coronation Stables, Crabbet Park, providing a beautiful backdrop.
Lady Wentworth inspects four of her Arabian stallions, with Coronation Stables, Crabbet Park, providing a beautiful backdrop.

The horse stock of the world can be roughly divided geographically into (A) “cold” blood (Equs caballus frigidus), which belongs to the North or more exactly Northwestern cold countries, including the strong slow-moving convex headed thick-skinned breeds, and (B) the “hot” blood of the South and East founded on the concave-headed Equus Arabicus, which is the tap root of speed and quality.

From the admixture of these types all other “warm” or “cool” breeds are derived, varying in appearance according to the predominance of blood on either side, just as the primary colours blue and yellow produce varying shades of green. These may be classed as “Equus caballus frigicalidus” where the cold predominate, and “Equus caballus ardens”where the hot is in excess. The Thoroughbred race horse is an instance of E. C. Ardens. There is no documentary proof that he has of drop of anything but Oriental blood (Arab and Barb), but his varying count of ribs and the heavy convex heads which occasionally appear, are evidences of cold blood somewhere and these reversions can only come from the few foundation mares whose origin is unknown.

Kehileh Dajamieh

This absence of evidence has recently been claimed as positive evidence of a wonderful breed of native English racing mares. This patriotic invention is a mere mares nest. Though I have traced some of these Oriental sources, the remaining few are quite obviously flaws, for though some of the convex heads may be of Barb origin, these blanks are the only possible source of the coarse elements which undoubtedly exist, but which were all notoriously non-racing breeds. The classic winners seldom show these reversions.

All contemporary, both written and pictorial, proves conclusively (1) that the Arab was universally considered the only breed for getting racehorses and held the supreme reputation for speed. (2) That there was no indigenous breed of racing mares of English blood. (3) That all horses of all breeds then in England, even cart horses, were foreign, i.e., either Oriental or continental heavy battle horses and Spanish harness and parade horses. Historians have been misled by the word “courser” which at that time meant a ponderous charger for armoured knights, and not a racehorse, until a couple of centuries later when it was first used for hare coursing. It was the Arab that gave the speed, and the good feeding and 300 years of specialization did the rest.

So far from being a Mongolian derivative dating only from post-Christian times, as has lately been advanced by writers who have not studied type or documentary proofs, the Arabian horse is the world’s oldest hot-blooded racing foundation stock. This horse does not appear on the rock carvings of Europe of 50,000 B.C., as he was geographically far removed from this area, but he does appear on the rock carvings of central Arabia and Syria long B.C. and is magnificently shown in the Temples of Egypt c. 1,300 to 2,000 B.C., at a period when historical records show that Rameses and Seti took thousands of mares in their battles against the Arabian and Syrian tribes. Here we find the Arab horse, startling in his lifelike beauty, with arched neck and tail aloft, galloping in light chariots or ridden barebacked in battle; and the first ridden horse on record of about the same date is a statuette found in Egypt and now in the New York Museum.

SharimaContrary to Ridgeway’s theory, Libya and the Barbary states had originally no horses, either fossil or alive, or depicted on rock. The oldest rock carvings of horses dated only after the migrations of the Beni Helal from Arabia into Libya, which approximately followed somewhat later than the appearance of Arabian horses in Egypt. The Arabian racehorses appears B.C. on some of the Greek vases (not the Parthenon horse which was a mixed pony type.) Further, the Phoenician Arab seafaring traders disseminated Arabian horses all aver the coasts of southern Europe, reaching even England.

ShareerProfessor Ridgeway was right in thinking that there was “a wonderful racing breed which overran the whole world and influenced every breed.” but he got his facts and dates upside down. The Arab, not the Barb, is the foundation stock from which the Barb was only one of the derivations. El Kelbi’s records trace back to the wild horses Hoshaba and Baz, owned by Baz, great grandson of Shem, son of Noah, 3,000 B.S., and to Zad er Rakib, dating from the time of King Solomon 1,000 B.C. All writers have hitherto entirely missed the records of Sultan El Naseri. Arab horses were raced by the Prophet in Syria and there are records of the names of racehorses B.C.

Kuhaylan RodanIn the 9th century and for 500 years Egypt was the world’s greatest racing center. Sultan El Naseri, 1290 A.D., gave fabulous prices for Arab race horses, 30,000 English pounds for a stallion, and the world’s record price for any horse when he paid 67,000 pounds for the El Karta filly. This remains a record, as the fantastic syndicate valuation of recent Thoroughbreds is false value for speculation and not paid by any one person. The Barbary states have always been a corridor for mixed invasions of all sorts of settlers with all sorts of horses. Northwest Africa was once joined to Europe and its fauna and flora are all of European type. The horses are a cosmopolitan mixture still showing the convex Northern head much like the Spanish breed. The subsequent invasions of Beni Helal and the later Saracen ones flooded them with Arabian horses, and in Morocco the Arab strains were long preserved pure. Barbs have varied in type from century to century just as their human counterparts have done. They got a reflected reputation owing to their Arab blood, but were never in the same class as sires and were not racehorses in their own country, though held next to the Arab as an improver.

The story of El Khamsa or the five mares of the Prophet is, as its origin shows, entirely post-Islamic and forms no part of real history. Strain names, too, are comparatively recent. The Arab breed was generally termed Kehilan, meaning Thoroughbred, shortened from Kehilan Ajuz “the Ancient Thoroughbred.” All strains are Kehilan (i.e., purebred) even those where the word “Kehilan”has been dropped in common speech. Strain names do not denote any special characteristics. All purebred Arabs should conform as nearly as possible to the one perfect foundation type aimed at in Arabia, whatever the name of the strain. These names are valuable as identification, for in Arabia as elsewhere, certain breeders either by natural judgment or good luck tend to breed better individuals than others, just as some owners through ill-fortune of war may lose their best mares and be reduced to breeding from their pure but less individually good stock. So when a Nomad is told a horse is “Kehilan” he wants to know Kehilan of what or where or whose Kehilan, as we should do when told a mare is Thoroughbred and we want to know where and by whom she was bred.

It is obviously foolish to say that certain strains should never be bred to a Kehilan because all are Kehilan (Thoroughbred), and it is equivalent to saying that no Aga Khan mares should be mated to a Thoroughbred! The origin of stain names is generally from the name of a man or a district or the characteristic of some celebrated horses, but it does not mean that such a characteristic stamps the whole strain. Dahman, for instance, took its name from the colour of a black ass which fostered a filly foal. It was not even the colour of the mare herself or her filly. Sub-strains are constantly changing with ownership. There are early mentions of horses of “the Stock of Dahes” or of Wajib or Labik or Ajuz, corrupted by Abd-el Kader into the Algerian myth of “Ahway,” which is merely a scribe’s error in omitting a dot, thus converting the word “ancient” to “crooked” on which the myth of the crooked stallion was evolved.

On the subject of strains, Lady Anne Blunt wrote many years ago:

“I cannot discover any ground for the theory of certain strains having certain peculiar characteristics. There is no distinction drawn between them as Skene (the Consul at Aleppo) imagined, and no Bedouin would dream of keeping them separately. It must be pointed out that though Oasis dwellers, even in Nejd and tribes that have migrated north to the edge of Ottoman territory, accept the ordinary Moslem tradition, it is not so with the Nomad tribes to whom their is no Khamsa. What they say is ‘Ah, those are things which the Northern folk (Ahl es Shemal) believe — and anyone who talks like that is fit to be shut up as a lunatic’. “

Thus we see that the Bedouin tradition is thousands of years prior to strain names or to the Islamic version of them which forms no part of the true Bedouin desert lore. It is time to emphasize this, as with the spread of civilization and distortion of history by what lady Anne Blunt’s Muteyri informant used to call “those madmen who write books,” the old simple straightforward history is likely to became more and more overlaid and forgotten in the romantic semi-religious Algerian myths and superstitions against which she warned us 30 years ago. We can only, therefore, repeat that there is one universal classic type of perfect beauty which should be the type of all pure bred Kehilan Thoroughbred stock. No strain is characterized by heavy heads, harsh coats, speed, long necks or any other peculiarities whatsoever good or bad.

In all pedigree stock there are individuals which, as Mr. Blunt wrote, diverge somewhat from the true type. It happens less often with Arabs of pure blood than with almost any other breed, but where it does occur the horses, however authentic in pedigree, should not be bred from. These are the very ones which are cast off by the tribes for sale to Europeans, their defects being passed off as being typical of Managhi or Jilfan strains. Bedouins are grand “leg pullers,” and delight in playing on foreign credulity. A really classic Arab bears his pedigree in his faultless appearance.

Far be it from me to claim that I am the sole and only owner of the world’s best horses. I have in truth inherited a great tradition which I am carrying on to the best of my judgment, but I should be the last to claim perfection. Those who aim at perfection are seldom satisfied, and I am possibly the severest critic of my own stock. The perfect horse like the perfect man is a rather elusive quarry! There are many horses in America of very high quality which I should be the first to appreciate, no matter who owned them.

I publishedthe Davenport-Borden controversy not to disparage the Davenport or any other stock but because the battle struck me as a highly entertaining human document. I have the whole correspondence and report of Davenport’s proceedings on Davenport’s own authority, but if I have hurt the feelings of anyone now owning descendants of this stock I should be very sorry. If some of them by lucky chance were authentic they will make good in the quality of their descendants. Blood will tell, and I should be delighted to see such evidence. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

As for myself, the stock here has certainly proved itself all over the world, due to the high quality of the tap root mares, and it is established on the best traditions, but there are always possibilities of improvement, even if it means painting the lily and re-gilding the gold standard! And if any American owner can offer me a more perfect lily than that grown in the Crabbet garden, I am ready to buy it at his price without haggling.

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Related Strains of Arabians

Related Strains of Arabians

By Carl R. Raswan
**originally published in Western Horseman Jan/Feb 1944 issue


Defects in conformation and balance are caused by faulty breeding, by mixing of types, blood lines or strains.

Previous articles have explained this with examples and photos of undistinguished types of Arabian horses in contrast to well-proportioned, harmoniously-balanced individuals of pure strain types. Besides these unrelated and pure types, we have the related strains.

In the July-August, 1943, issue, on the bottom of page 15, I gave a complete list of the related strains and explained to which type each one belonged: To the Kuhaylan-strength; the Saqlawi-beauty, or Muniqi-speed (angular, coarse, plain) type.

Arabians bred within related strains, in spite of their mixtures, always resemble each other in some general way within their individual group (Kuhaylan, Saqlawi or Muniqi). Their various points of conformation assemble like a fixed pattern of mosaic and blend harmoniously into that total picture which we call a distinguished type (Kuhaylan, Saqlawi, or Muniqi) – because they are akin by blood within their group through centuries of inbreeding.

All distinguished types have been established

(1) on harmonious proportions and (2) on symmetrical lines.

This applies to Arabians with rounded outlines as well as those of angular outlines, and these harmonious proportions and symmetrical lines are the great “points” which evoke in us the impression of a well-balanced animal.

Kuhaylan and Saqlawi Arabians bred within related (sub-) strains are well-balanced horses. They differ from the original strains only because they have plainer heads and bodies, and a lack of (the more refined) details in their whole make-up. The Muniqi related (sub-) strains show a great variation of conformation among each other (See January-February, 1942, issue, Pages 62-63).

Many horse breeders prefer Arabians of the related Kuhaylan and Saqlawi (sub-) strains to those of the original strains, because those of the related strains have certain points of conformation or distinguished features which please some horsemen more than others. I have heard Arabs as well as Europeans say that they prefer the Hamdani (sub-strain of the Kuhaylan) because the Hamdani have a longer croup and wider back than other strains.

Others claimed that the Samhan have the best muscled shoulders. Polo players in Egypt told me that the Abayyan are the most sure-footed Arabians. One gentleman in Poland, a great Arab breeder, chose color and was enthusiastic over the Hadban’s seal-brown coat with black markings, black feet and black mane and tail. Other horsemen discern the different tail carriages. Some wanted it “level” with the hindquarters, not high-flung. And there are breeders who insist on a combination of beauty and speed (Rabdan strain) or speed and strength (Abu Urqub strain).

Whatever a horse lover holds superior in an Arabian of a related strain usually does not concern the points of the horses’s head. Mostly it deals with points of his conformation.

In previous articles I mentioned that the mixing of the two classic-antique types,

(1) the Kuhaylan (including its sub-strains) and

(2) the Saqlawi (including its sub-strains),

does no harm — as far as Arabian Characteristics, harmonious proportions, symmetrical lines and the balance of the whole horse are concerned.

So that there will be no misunderstanding, ONLY the angular type of the Muniqi (including its sub-strains) when mixed with Kuhaylan and (or) Saglawi strains destroy the rounded outlines and takes away some (or all) Arabian characteristics. The mixing of pure Kuhaylan and Saqlawi and their substrains is harmless as far as rounded outlines and Arabian characteristics are concerned.

It is only a question of more or less refinement, finer bone or more muscle, and sufficient or less balance. For example, a Kuhaylan stallion bred to a Saqlawiyah mare will produce an offspring with more flesh (muscle) or a finer (bone) frame; while the foal of a Saqlawi stallion and a Kuhaylah mare will have a stronger (heavier) and wider frame (the mother’s side seems to give size and frame), but lack proportionally some muscle or flesh either in front or behind or on top.

Historical famous breeders like Abbas Pasha and Ali Pasha Sharif of Egypt (1815 to 1897) “threw” a Kuhaylan stallion into their Saqlawi (or related blood like the Dahman) strain every third generation to give more muscle, more width and more strength to their over-refined, incest-bred Saqlawi (and related substrains) — or they took Kuhaylan sub-strains) — or they took Kuhaylan sub-strains which “leaned” to the Saqlawi type (the Wadnan and Shuwayman) and mated them with the Saqlawi and (the Saqlawi-related) Dahman. The result was well-balanced animals which were neither representatives of strength (Kuhaylan) or beauty (Saqlawi), but rather of strength AND beauty (muscle and refinement), harmoniously blended and balanced and retaining perfectly the rounded outlines and Arabian characteristics of both classic (antique) strains — the Kuhaylan AND Saqlawi.

Lady Anne Blunt purchased some of these supremely fine and perfect horses and retained their qualities as long as she did not mix them with angular Muniqi.*

When Lady Blunt and her successor mated the rounded and angular types, they got away at once from the classic Arabian type and produced horses like Feluka (see accompanying photo), or Nueyra and Rejeb (photos on page 6, September-October, 1943, issue) and Selima (photo on Page 9, January-February, 1943, issue).

The PURE strain Arabian — as well as the Arabian of a related strain — should conform to the following points:

The NECK must be proportionately long and well muscled (but pliable). It should be neither short nor thin. Even at perfect rest a rounded outline (the crest) is apparent in the Kuhaylan, Saqlawi, and their related strain.

SHOULDERS must be long, never straight, but well sloped (obliquely) and sufficiently muscled where they reach the withers. The shoulder-point below the neck (that is the collar-bone of the horse) must be set deep enough.

The BACK must be short, well-muscled, no “razor-back” but a deep “seam”with muscles on both sides of the backbone (spine). The back should be level, but a slight “saddle-back”(if the top is wide and strong) may be considered harmless. Horses of the Abayyan strain are slightly sway-backed, but carry just as much weight as any others. While the back must be short, the topline from the withers to the tail must be long (long hind quarters, long withers and long, oblique shoulders).

The more slope of the shoulders, the further extended the space in front of the rider, the shorter (and stronger) the back — but the longer the topline and, relatively, the longer the line below (between the fore and hind legs, or rather between the points of the elbows and stifle joints). The missing vertebrae in the backbone make the Arab a greater weight-carrier.

LOINS: The coupling of the ribs and hipbone has to be very close, allowing room for two or three fingers — not more! Misbred Arabians are usually not short-coupled, but badly ribbed-up (flat-sided with roach back), instead of having loins which are short, level, thick and wide across in front of both hipbones. Ordinary Arabs have the roach-back in connection with a high croup (“high behind”) and their tail set on too low. Most of these poorly bred Arabians have an abdomen which is “hering-gutted” (tucked-up flanks, instead of let-down). See the photos on Page 16 in the January-February, 1942, issue, and Pages 13 and 14 of the July-August, 1943, issue.

Tail-carriage is very important in the Arab. The dock (root of the tail) reveals the black skin of the Arab. The missing vertebrae in the root of the tail insure its graceful carriage and greater strength on account of the shorter leverage. The tail should be attached high (level or almost level with the croup) and issue forth gracefully in an elevated curve from the hind quarters, and not appear like a broomstick set below the croup into the buttocks — nor should the tail dangle from a goose-rump between the hocks.

THIGHS: Long, well-muscled and wide as a base for wider gaskins.

GASKINS: By no means thin. Poor (mongrel) Arabs can always be recognized by their coarse heads, lack of tail carriage and weedy gaskins. An Arabian of the related or pure-strains has wide, strong (well-muscled) firm and long gaskins (long and wide like the forearm). Compare the photos of the Arabians in this issue with some of those in previous issues.

Many horsemen forget to look at the gaskins and the width of the cannon bone in the hind leg. A glance at these two points reveals quickly and definitely how good or bad an Arabian is.

HOCKS and all other joints of the legs (knees and fetlocks) must be clean and flat — no swelling. Many “beautiful,” well-fed Egyptian, Syrian and Iraqian horses have soft joints. They would never stand the rough life of the desert where endurance tests not only the heart but the legs of the horse.

Hocks and knees should set very low (deep), a sure sign of a (most desirable) long forearm, long gaskins and short, wide cannon bones with large sinews (forearm and gaskins packed with firm muscles). I have found that a deep chest goes with a long forearm. As an outstanding example, see Messaoud’s photo on Page 14 of the March-April 1943 issue.

HIND LEGS: Parallel lines of the lower hind legs (profile of the cannon) are the key which reveals the general conformation of the whole animal. It seems impossible for a poor horse ever to have wide and parallel lines in its hind leg (cannon bone). If not wide, the gaskins above are poor (thin), and if not parallel, there is a dent below the hock.

Faulty construction of the cannon bone causes swelling of the hock — and for that same reason in the forelegs too, with a dent below the thickening as in the hind leg. But it is not a fault when there is a gentle curve in the hind leg above the hock. Many call it a “sickle”if it is extremely curved. It is the place where the lower thigh passes into the hock, and a slight bend there indicates a leg of great endurance. The Kuhaylan and Saqlawi and their related strains have it more or less.

A straight (dropped) hind leg, also called “well let-down,” indicates great speed. The Muniqi and its related strains have these straight hind legs. Swollen hocks, knees and pasterns are rarely due to disease, but to faulty construction, and this in turn has been caused by mixing unrelated strains together — the curved hind leg, for example, mixed with the anatomical construction of the straight hind leg.

A pure-strain Muniqi, therefore, is just as good a horse as a pure Kuhaylan (or Saqlawi), and a horse of the related strains which belongs to the Kuhaylan (or Saqlawi) group is just as good as one that belongs to the related strains of the Muniqi group. But we should never forget that the Kuhaylan and Saqlawi groups have (anatomically speaking) an entirely different construction than those Arabians of the Muniqi-related strains.

The Jilfan (which belongs to the Muniqi) are the most angular of the Muniqi-related strains. On the bottom of Page 15 in the July-August, 1943, issue, I have shown which related strains of the Muniqi group are not pure Muniqi type any more, but have so much kuhaylan or Saqlawi blood added during the last centuries that they can hardly be recognized as Muniqi type.

But when we mix the angular Muniqi with the rounded Kuhaylan or Saqlawi we are liable to get diseased (faulty, lymphatic) joints. Nature tries to adjust itself by enlarging joint ligaments to absorb the strain set up by faulty bone construction. High-leggedness in the Arabian is a mixing of long (angular) lines with rounded ones — lack of girth– circumference, little depth of chest, long cannon bone.

Arabians of related strains should not be confused with those which come from a mix-up of the two main groups (the rounded AND the angular). Those of related strains are either the offspring of the rounded type OR the angular, but not of both.**

I do not try to “feature” any particular Arabian horses (or their owners) through the photos accompanying my articles in THE WESTERN HORSEMAN. I have tried to be impartial and to use pictures only as a means of demonstrating types and certain points, rather than individuals. If photos are submitted to me in care of THE WESTERN HORSEMAN I will select some for use in future articles.

If some Arabians do not get sufficient credit in horse publications, don’t blame the horse. Sometimes it is the photographer’s fault, or the author’s. Don’t cease to love your own horse first, and love it even if it is not photogenic. Some of the horses I have loved were not purebred, nor related in the strain, but “indescribable.” Nobody wanted them but my own heart.

*Some splendid examples are: Rasim (photo on page 10, November-December, 1941, issue); Mesaoud (photo on Page 14, March-April, 1943, issue) and also included here in this online article; Daoud (photo on Page 8, September-October, 1943, issue); Ibn Yashmak, Risala, Rifala, Rifla, Rasima and Nasra.

**For other photos of related strain Arabians, see Pages 9,10 and 11, September-October, 1941, issue; Page 16, January-February, 1942, issue; Page 13, July-August, 1943, issue. For drawings and photos explanatory of the angular and rounded types, see Page 15, January-February, 1942, issue, and see list on Page 15, July-August, 1943, issue.


EDITOR’S NOTE: As has been stated by THE WESTERN HORSEMAN before, neither Mr. Raswan nor this magazine has sought in these articles to promote or detract from the esteem in which any Arabian strain is held. Strain breeding is practiced in the development of domestic animals of all breeds. This and other similar articles by Mr. Raswan have been presented purely for the purpose of clarifying the dominant characteristics of each family or strain. Mr. Raswan is preparing a number of additional articles concerning Arabian horses, to be presented from time to time in THE WESTERN HORSEMAN. The subjects to be discussed include: “Training and handling of Arabians,” “Early Arabians in the United States,” “Arabian Race Horses,” “Analysis of Arabian Pedigrees,” “The Blunt Arabians,” “Ali Pasha Sharif Arabians,” “Arabian Foals,” “Arabians on the European Continent,” “Arabian Stallions,” and “Arabian Mares.”

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Davenport vs Blunt Arabians

Davenport vs Blunt Arabians

By Carl R. Raswan
**originally published in Western Horseman Nov/Dec 1945 issue

Rasan with his dam
Rasan with his dam

Lady Wentworth, daughter of Lady Anne Blunt (to whom we Arabian horse breeders of America owe a lasting gratitude), has written two remarkable books. “Thoroughbred Racing Stock” (on the origin of the Thoroughbred through Arabian blood) and “The Authentic Arabian Horse” just published in London).

These two volumes are exceptional for their wealth of information gathered from innumerable sources – ancient and modern publications and manuscripts, paintings, sculptures, coins, rock drawings, skulls, etc. The two books should be owned by every agricultural college library and by all serious Thoroughbred and Arabian horse breeders.

We Arabian horse breeders in America find these two books contain a challenge. We cannot accept it without answering some contentions and we must (for the sake of historical records and any future references in which our Arabian horse breeders in America are interested) correct some statements.

Lady Wentworth makes it appear as if only those of our Arabian horses in America which can be traced to her Crabbet Park stud farm in England are of any breeding value. Since we have in the United States an established and recognized Arabian stud book (of growing volume as the years go by), we cannot allow Lady Wentworth’s statements to go by without challenging them, and we must present the actual facts about those historical Arabians in the United States whose good qualities and true Desert (Bedouin) descent she questions.

Our American horses of undoubted Arabian blood, imported by Homer Davenport, receive the worst “let-down” in the Wentworth books.

Granted that Homer Davenport only traveled in Syria and in the North Arabian desert and never in Nejd (Inner Arabia), at least the lady must admit that Davenport went to the same Bedouin tribes from which her mother (Lady Anne Blunt) and her father (Sir Wilfred Blunt) bought most of the foundation stock of Crabbet Park (Lady Wentworth’s present stud farm.) Lady Wentworth never went to Arabia or to the Inner Arabian Bedouin tribes herself. All the drawings and reproductions of her “desert” paintings in both of her books are purely Egyptian, Syrian and Algerian in background (the countries where Lady Wentworth lived at times and revisited outside of England.) Her manner of discarding the Davenport Arabian horses and the historical accomplishments of Davenport and many other American horse breeders who had a great share in the importation of Arabian horses (directly or indirectly) from the Desert, is wholly unfair to these great breeders.

Homer Davenport imported not only from Desert Arabia, but from Lady Anne Blunt herself (for example, Markisa, Berid, Jahil) and from Lady Anne Blunt’s friends, who had bred from her stock.

According to Arabian studbook registrations in America, records show that Homer Davenport’s Desert Arabians traced as follows: sixteen of the Anazah (either Fidan or Saba) tribes, and five of the Shammar tribes. Only Antar was born in Aleppo from Bedouin horses, and Abbeian is simply marked as “Desertbred.” These records could not condemn a single one of th Davenport Arabians in our eyes. They were as good (or better) than any of the original “fountain-heads” of the Blunts, who bought many of their Arabians in or near Dey (Ez-zor) on the Euphrates river, Aleppo, Damascus, Baghdad, and other Near Eastern cities, villages and oases. If we compare purity of pedigrees (signed and attested by chiefs of Desert Arabia), we find that the Davenport documents are just as good (and in many instances even more authentic) than the Blunts’. In fact, many of the horses imported by Davenport look much better (more of the true Arabian type) than some of the imported Blunt Arabians.

I am not saying that the Blunt Arabians were not so good as the Davenport Arabians, but I will not let Lady Wentworth’s challenge go by without putting on record that some of the Blunt “Desert” Arabians were an inferior lot when compared to the fine specimens of distinguished Arabian type which Homer Davenport, the American, brought to the United States.

Lady Wentworth questions Davenport’s hunt for Bedouin-bred Arabian horses. She denies that Davenport contacted true Bedouins of Arabia, as he spent only such a short time n the Near East. To this I can only answer: Homer Davenport had the assistance of the Turkish government through the good efforts of our American president, Theodore Roosevelt (well beloved in all Near Eastern countries). Homer Davenport not only saved time (through these valuable political connections) but also “space” in Arabia. Turkish officials in America advised him not to visit Aleppo and the North Arabian Desert before summer, as by that time the migrating tribes of Inner Arabia would be farthest north and west in Syria in their search for pastures and rainpools. In fact, some of these tribes had special permission from Turkish governors in Syria and Mesopotamia to bring their horses into the neighborhood of certain villages (but still in the desert) with guarantee of safe conduct under a flag of truce. This was at a time when blood feuds or political reprisals (for non-payment of taxes, etc.) might otherwise have prevented some Bedouin chiefs and their horsemen to venture so close to settled territory under Turkish sovereignty (and where the Bedouins would come under the Turkish law instead of under their own “unwritten code” of the desert.)

Horse breeders will ask: How could certain Blunt (Crabbet Park) Arabians, which belonged to (what I call) the “poor lot” of the early Blunt Arabians, win championships in horse shows in England? The answer is: There was hardly any competition to speak of (as far as Arabian horses were concerned) at that time — 1879 and the following decades — in England. Even in our time (1926 – 1938) Lady Wentworth competed exclusively against her own Arabians (Royal Richmond Horse show) — or against Arabs raised in England exclusively or mostly from her own breeding.

If Lady Wentworth’s Crabbet Park stud farm had not been reduced so drastically lately (she used to have 90 to 120 head of Arabians and she has only six broodmares now), we Americans could challenge her with our own Arabians, and prove to her that we in America have bred just as fine a type of Arabians from Davenport’s importations as from her Crabbet Park stock — or from mixing bloodlines of the Davenport and Blunt (Crabbet Park) Arabians. For an example I include a photo of the two-year-old colt “Sartez”(No. 2500), who is an exact 50-50 mixture of Davenport and Crabbet Park (Blunt) Arabian bloodlines. This “little” horse, now 14 hands and three inches, resembles Crabbet Park’s “Rasim” in many ways and he appears to have a better head even than the “immortal” Rasim. I wonder what “wrong” the Davenport blood has done to Sartez?

I hope that many of our readers who own Davenport Arabs will send in photos so that we can show Lady Wentworth what outstanding individuals of Arabian type these Davenport horses have produced. Lady Wentworth criticizes pioneer American breeders and their imported Arabian horses. These men are dead and can’t answer to the English lady, but their horses live and we present-day Americans breed from Davenport and other horses. Hence we are maligned, too, if we don’t answer the unreasonable charges against the purity and origin of our Arabian horses in America. We set a high value on them! Not only for sentimental reasons, but also for much more serious motives; we want to continue to breed fine Arabians, co-operate with our friends, the Arabian breeders in England and in other foreign countries, and use the best colts to improve Arabians as well as ordinary ranch and other saddle horses in all parts of the world.

Lady Wentworth’s criticizing remarks extend not only to Homer Davenport and his Arabians, but also to Randolph Huntington and other Americans and their Arabians. Homer Davenport, Spencer Borden, W.R.Brown, and Albert W. Harris have written smaller books than Lady Wentworth’s, but in many respects much more original. Without the books of these American authors the “pattern” of the history and breeding of Arabian horses would lack its finest designs. She passes Homer Davenport’s book with the remark that it was “another advertising stunt,” and a “highly imaginative book.” To Arabian horse breeders all over the world, the Homer Davenport book ranks with Lady Anne Blunt’s two books, and whatever material of Lady Anne Blunt’s is incorporated in her daughter’s (Lady Wentworth’s) two volumes.

It is with deep and sincere feeling that I write these pages concerning Lady Wentworth’s generally fine historical books, but we Americans know that our own 2400 living Arabian horses in the United States today, trace at least by 90 percent to Homer Davenport’s, Spencer Borden’s, Randolph Huntington’s, J.A.P.Ramsdell’s, W.R.Brown’s, Albert W. Harris’; , Joseph E. Draper’s, J.M.Dickinson’s and Henry B.Babson’s importations from Arabia, Egypt, Poland, France, England, Spain, South America, etc. These imported Arabians were as good as any of the Blunts’ and Lady Wentworth’s. And some of the American breeders also imported from the Blunts and Lady Wentworth, besides buying from other Arabian breeders in England, Egypt, etc.

Some of the Blunt “Desert” Arabs actually came from settled districts, villages in Syria, and from semi-peasants on the Euphrates, and from Turkish government officials, a Christian in Baghdad, a Greek in Syria (Damascus), a Turkoman chief, an Ulema in Aleppo, a townsman of Syria (Hama), and from dealers in India.

Davenport’s record looks clean, indeed, compared to this conglomeration of village and towns-people (and not Bedouins!) from which the Blunts bought at times. After all, these horses were of Bedouin descent — most of them. All I ask is that Lady Wentworth not make out her conglomerated Arabians to be superior to the Davenport and other Arabians in America. We know that most of the Blunt Arabians are “tops.”

The blood of the “conglomerated” Arabians of the Blunts has been “swallowed” up during the last forty to sixty years in Crabbet Park (Lady Wentworth’s stud farm in England) in the overwhelming flood of exquisite blood which the Blunts added from Ali Pasha Sherif of Egypt, and of the Anazeh and Shammar tribes — the very same tribes (and in certain instances the same families of certain sub-tribes) from whom Homer Davenport bought twenty years later! (For example, the Ibn Meheyd of the Fidan-Anazeh, and many others).

“Poor” Blunt Arabs of the late seventies and eighties of the last century are in our time so far left behind (six or more horse generations) that hardly a characteristic trace of their faults or blemishes remains in their present-day offspring. Lady Wentworth was anxious to re-infuse new blood (of the most authentic and famous bloodlines of the classic strains) into her Crabbet Park stud. Most notable and best known of all was the (now deceased) Polish Arabian “Skowronek,” who became her leading sire and produced the outstanding Arabians to be found in her stud to this day.

Though Lady Wentworth denies the purestrain (or related-in- the- strain) breeding, I discovered the following passages in her own books:

“In the Sebaa and Fedaan groups of Anazeh, only such families as Ibn Sbeyni, Ibn El-Derri, Ibn Hemsi, Ibn Sbeyel, and a few others are credited by Nejd opinion with having preserved their strains of Seglawi-Jedran, Dahman Om Amr, Managhi Hedruj, etc., unmixed.” (“Thoroughbred Racing Stock.” page 116).

Photo of "Sartez" at two years old, a perfect 50-50 blend of Davenport and Blunt bloodlines.
Photo of “Sartez” at two years old, a perfect 50-50
blend of Davenport and Blunt bloodlines.

These Sebaa and Fedaan are the very same tribes from which Homer Davenport bought most of his own horses, and the animals Davenport acquired were of the strains mentioned above by Lady Wentworth. The following Davenport Arabians were unmixed (no Muniqi and no Muniqi-related blood): Houran, Muson, Hamrah, Wadduda, Gomusa, Azra, Deyr, Mowarda, Euphrates, Antar, Reshan, Abeyah, Urfah, Hadba, Jedah, Haffia and Moharra. All these original Davenport Arabians were of the classic strains (rounded outlines.) Two horses of Davenport’s importation were pure Muniqi on dam’s and sire’s side: “Kusof” (later a U.S.Remount stallion) and the mare “Farha.”

What further proof do we need to show that still in Davenport’s time (1906), Desert tribes were breeding pure in the strain (or related in the strains)?

Lady Wentworth is ahead of us in only one respect: Her Arabians are on the average taller than our Arabians of Davenport descent, but she admits herself (in her books) that Arabians and their offspring gain about half an inch every twenty years through better and regular feed and care. The Blunt Arabians bought in Syria, Iraq, Arabia and India, have been purchased at least 26 years earlier than those acquired by Davenport in the Desert. Offspring of Muhammad Ali Pasha’s, Abbas Pasha’s and Ali Pasha Sherif’s horses are eighty to 130 years removed from Desert Arabia, and their produce have gained anywhere from three to six inches (in Egypt, Europe and America). The best Blunt-blood traces to these Muhammad Ali Abbas Pasha and Ali Pasha Sherif horses, and the Davenport offspring from those individuals (of the classic strains) mentioned above have mixed superbly well with the Arabians of the Egyptian Pashas.

The following quotations from Lady Wentworth’s book, “Thoroughbred Racing Stock” (page 126), show an admission that pure-strain breeding is the best:

“It is only in rare cases that mares can be mated for many generations to horses of their own strain, as in the case of the Krushiehs of the Muteyr.”

What does Lady Wentworth say of the “Krushiehs” in other parts of her book, that prove that pure-strain breeding produces the best Arabians? She says:

“A mare was wished (by Abbas Pasha) of that Kehilan El-Krush strain which is the special pride of the Dushan clan of the Muteyr — but the reply was unfavorable; nothing was to be had of that strain at any price” (from Lady Wentworth’s “The Authentic Arabian Horse,” page 143. On the head of this page are printed significantly these words: “The Priceless Krush Mares.”

Further down on the same page we read:

“Yet the failure of Abbas Pasha’s emissary to obtain a Krushieh, notwithstanding his readiness to pay almost any price, is still a matter of pride to the members of the Muteyr tribe.”

And still further down on the same page we find the following words:

“Latterly Ibn Saoud reconquered the Ibn Rashids, and the Crabbet stud secured a fine white Krushieh mare.”

Now, let us turn to the Arabian studbook of England, and we find that this white Krushieh of Lady Wentworth’s was pure-in-the- strain- bred! Dam and sire belonged to the Kuhaylan strain! The dam was a Kuhaylat El-Krush ( of Ed-Dauish, chieftain of the Mutayr tribe), and the sire a Kuhaylan Es-Suayti (of the Harb tribe). What I want to emphasize (on the strength of these quotations from Lady Wentworth’s two books) is that the outstanding Arabian horses mentioned in these two volumes of hers are the Krushiehs of the Muteyr tribe — and by her own words these Krushieh mares were bred to stallions of their own strain (Kuhaylan), producing (as she writes) a strain of horses that are “the special pride” of the tribe, and that they were “not for sale at any price.” Even Abbas Pasha could not acquire them.

Should we not (after this testimony by Lady Wentworth) try to breed pure-in-the-strain? And, if we cannot match certain parent horses in their own strain, should we not (at least), breed within related strains? (Kuhaylan with Saqlawi, for example).

Davenport’s pedigrees from Desert Arabia, written in Arabic and signed by the chiefs, testify to the same fact: The Bedouins, even as late as in Homer Davenport’s time (1906) were still breeding either pure-in-the-strain, or related-in-the-strain.

Homer Davenport brought from Arabia the following absolutely pure-in-the-strain Arabians: Reshan, Abeyah, Urfah, and Jedah. They were bred within the same strain on dam’s and sire’s side (just like the “White Krushieh” above!) In fact, Davenport’s lovely mare Werdi was a Krushieh, and one of her grandsons is one of the best Arabian stallions in California today (on Jimmy Draper’s ranch near Oakland). To the four pure-in-the-strain classic type Davenport Arabians from the desert we have to add his two pure-in-the-strain Muniqiyat mentioned before, Kusof and Farha. It pays to study and analyze our Arabian studbooks and draw knowledge and the truth from them!

Would Lady Wentworth still discard our Davenport Arabians as “unregistered street sweepings? (See her book: “The Authentic Arabian Horse.” page 215).

The Jockey Club and Weatherby (very wisely, I would say, as they were registering Thoroughbreds and should never have accepted early Blunt Arabians into their records) refused to accept Davenport Arabians in their studbooks, though the “conglomerated” Blunt Arabians from the streets of Syrian villages and towns were “swept” into the studbooks of the Jockey Club and Weatherby.

Let us turn to Lady Wentworth’s own Crabbet Park Arabians again and check on the early Blunt horses of Bedouin (Desert) descent. Pure-in-the-strain were the following eighteen imported Arabians: Burning Bush, Purple Stock, Darley, Haidee, Zuleika, Kars, Hagar, Dajania, Jerboa, Damask Rose, Ashgar, Saoud, Pharoah’s Dam, Abeyan (1906), Krush (a grey, imported 1911), and the famous “white Krushieh”(imported 1927), Saadun (1911) and Saade (1912). The following twelve were Ali Pasha Sherif Arabians in Blunt’s possession. Each was recognized as an outstanding animal, each one’s dam and sire was of the same strain: Aziza (I), Azz, Bint Roda, Ghalaya, Gharran, Horra, Ibn Mesaoud, Ibn Nura, Jemla, Sahab, Waziri (the best stallion the Blunts ever owned) and Zobeyni. In Zobeyni’s pedigree, Lady Anne Blunt wrote: “The Anazeh tribes had a high reputation for preserving the breed of horses pure, but in the last thirty years this has gone down, although there are still families such as Ibn Sbeyni’s (breeders of this outstanding stallion Zobeyni) and Ibn Ed-Derri’s and a few others who possess authentic strains.”

The “authentic” (Arabic “Asil”) horses are none other than those who can trace both of their parents to the same strain (or at least to the related strains).

Major Upton brought from Desert Arabia (1875) four Arabian horses: Joktan, Ishmael, Kesia, and Meroe, and all four were pure-in-the-strain horses.

All Arabians in America and England are of mixed strains, but our best ones are those which have no Muniqi at all, or are at least five generations removed from Muniqi (and may thus be considered as good as pure-in-the-(classic) strains.

The second best are at least three generations removed from Muniqi blood. Even the less distinguished mares can be used to produce improved offspring by mating them with stallions which are at least one more generation removed from Muniqi blood than the mares. Thus it makes no difference whether we breed Davenport or Blunt (or mixed Davenports and Blunts). If we have Muniqi horses (according to the old system of strain-registration through the dam’s side) we shall find in most instances (by checking the strain-names of their ancestors) that these so-called Muniqiyat are actually only 1/8 or 1/16 Muniqi.

Muniqiyah mares proven to be overwhelmingly of Kuhalan (and Kuhaylan related strains like the Hadban and Hamdani) should be bred to sires which are also overwhelmingly Kuhaylan.

Muniqiyah mares proven to be overwhelmingly of Saqlawi (and Saqlawi related strains like the Abayyan and Dahman) should be bred to sires which also are overwhelming Saqlawi.

Since the only differences (in characteristics) among the classic strains are a question of strength (more muscle and width) and beauty (elegance, finer bone) we do not have to worry if we do mix Kuhaylan and Saqlawiyat. We only have to guard against the re-infusion of the angular (and coarser) Muniqiyat, which have smaller eyes (set high, instead of low), longer back, sloping hindquarters, and narrow windpipe, but excellent legs and shoulders).

Since the Jockey Club and Weatherby’s Thoroughbred registrations do not accept new Arabian entries, foreign buyers of Arabian horses will also pay little attention to the “exclusive” double-registration which had been of detriment to Davenports and other Arabians bred in America. Arabians belong in the Arabian studbooks of England, America, Egypt, Poland, etc. The enclosed photos of some of the “double-registered” Crabbet Park horses prove that they were not a top lot of Arabians when compared to Davenport’s “unregistered street sweepings” (as Lady Wentworth prefers to call them) while other Blunt Arabians were fine animals, but not any better than Davenport Arabians.

The Davenport-Arabian, "Fasal," is known by nearly every Arabian breeder in America. There are no Muniqi among any of her ancestors.
The Davenport-Arabian, “Fasal,” is known by nearly every Arabian breeder in America. There are no Muniqi among any of her ancestors.
"Rakkya," a Blunt-Arabian, is one-sixteenth Muniqi. Rakkya is three generations removed from Muniqi.
“Rakkya,” a Blunt-Arabian, is one-sixteenth Muniqi. Rakkya is three generations removed from Muniqi.
The Davenport-Arabian, "Harara"(above), was sired by "Deyr,"who was bred by the Anazeh Bedouins.
The Davenport-Arabian, “Harara”(above), was sired by “Deyr,”who was bred by the Anazeh Bedouins.
The great-grandmother of the Blunt-Arabian, "Nuri Sherif"(above), was Blunt's mare, "Wild Thyme," whose pedigree says: "Said to be a Kehileh El-Fidawi, bred by the Baggara tribe."
The great-grandmother of the Blunt-Arabian, “Nuri Sherif”(above), was Blunt’s mare, “Wild Thyme,” whose pedigree says: “Said to be a Kehileh El-Fidawi, bred by the Baggara tribe.”
There is no Muniqi in any of the ancestors of the Davenport-Arabian "Sherlet."
There is no Muniqi in any of the ancestors of the Davenport-Arabian “Sherlet.”
The Blunt-Arabian, "Rose of France," is the fifth generation removed from Muniqi.
The Blunt-Arabian, “Rose of France,” is the fifth generation removed from Muniqi.
The Davenport-Arabian, "Terina,"shows a striking resemblance to the Blunt mare, "Rim," shown {below}. Each carried only one-eighth Muniqi blood.
The Davenport-Arabian, “Terina,”shows a striking resemblance to the Blunt mare, “Rim,” shown {below}. Each carried only one-eighth Muniqi blood.
"Rim,"the Blunt-Arabian shown above, was a sister of "Ramla"and "Riyala."
“Rim,”the Blunt-Arabian shown above, was a sister of “Ramla”and “Riyala.”

Responses included in following WH issues:

WH Jan/Feb ’46 p. 23

Vive la Raswan!


I have a filly that will be four in May. Every horse in her pedigree happens to be of Davenport importation source, and she is one of the nicest fillies I have yet seen. I don’t claim her to be the nicest I have ever seen, but I think she’s a credit to Davenport’s reputation. I bought three fillies in 1943, and of the three the “pure” Davenport one is the only one I intend to keep.

MALCOLM D. MAXWELL, Modesto, California


When Lady Wentworth came out in her recent book condemning practically all American Arabians I was glad to see you take up the challenge and answer it so effectively. Among my twenty-nine head of Arabians I have some with mostly Davenport blood and some with mostly Crabbet blood. If had had to make a choice between the two it would be those with Davenport blood.

DONALD R. JONES, Porterville, California


I congratulate you on your challenge to Lady Wentworth. …This challenges me also as I own Kohkle, the daughter of Farha. She is still a magnificent white mare at the age of 27 years. We still ride her daily.

REBA A. TRAXELL., Burlington, New Jersey.


Was glad to see where you stood up for the American Arabians in the last issue of WESTERN HORSEMAN, but can’t understand Lady Wentworth’s ill-chosen statements.

W.G.NEWBY, Chilliwack, B.C.

(Editor’s Note: An answer by Lady Wentworth to Mr. Raswan’s Nov.-Dec., 1945, article, appears on Page 42 of this issue).

Western Horseman Jan/Feb ’46 P.42


Editor’s Note: In a recent letter to WESTERN HORSEMAN, Lady Wentworth, owner of the Crabbet Park stud farm in England, says””I was sorry to see in the pages of your excellent magazine such a thoroughly misleading article as that which I am now answering and for which I hope you will allow me space.” The following letter is being used in compliance with that request.

THE COMPLETE distortion of facts published by Carl Raswan in your issue of November is so utterly lost in the realms of fiction that it is hardly worth powder and shot, but in the interests of your readers there are a few points which cannot be allowed to pass.

One can only conclude that Raswan’s ignorance is so abysmal that he really believes the nonsense he writes, but when he has the impudence to set up, as he has done lately as an authority on the Arabic language and to contradict the translations of the highest Oriental authorities on the strength of masquerading under the Arab name of one of my horses, the thing is a farce.

Considering his fantastic strain-breeding theories and his condemnation of Managhi, colored a sinister black in his sample pedigree, and his grave warnings against it as a dangerous “taint,” one is left to wonder why he himself, acting as agent for Mr. W.K.Kellogg under the name of Carl R. Schmidt, purchased from me at a cost of 3,000 guineas two mares of that very strain sired by and in foal to horses of exactly the other strains which he professes to condemn as deadly mixtures.

Why also did he invest his employer’s money in no less than twelve of the “poor conglomerated Blunt stock,” including a colt, at 5,000 guineas? Surely he cannot wish us to believe that he was misleading his employer into paying these sums for rubbish and crowning the transaction by saddling himself for life with the name of one of these rubbish horses?

He may not be aware that Gheyleh Abdul Razzak recently published a report holding his theories up to ridicule as pure nonsense.

Raswan-Schmidt’s “facts” are as fantastic as his theories and his distortions and misquotations are too numerous for detailed contradiction. Here are samples:

1. I have never visited or lived in Syria or Algeria in my life.

2. I have 34 mares, not six.

3. Twelve out of nineteen horses quoted as Blunt importations were not Blunts at all. I have never heard of some of them.

4. I never called Davenport’s Arabs “unregistered street sweepings.” It was Borden’s phrase and I gave each man’s views impartially, but as to Davenport having had the “advantage”of Turkish protection, it would be the surest method of alienating the Arabs. One might as well send an emissary of Scotland Yard to buy Dick Turpin’s Black Bess.

When Schmidt came to buy horses he knew nothing about them and Professor Littmann, who corrected his Arabic, told me he had never read such a comedy of linguistic errors. He made novice mistakes in both departments, and as he continues to make them, I can only conclude that there is something radically wrong with his eyes as regards horses and with his erudition as regards language, and that time will never cure either.

The reputation of Crabbet Stud fortunately does not depend on his approval or disapproval. Its wins so far from being confined to England have been worldwide in open competition all over the globe so his hymn of hate can be disregarded. “Good wine needs no bush.”


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The Influence of Indian Magic in Europe

The Influence of Indian Magic in Europe

By Betty Finke
**originally published in the July-August 1990 The Crabbet Influence in Arabians Today magazine.

Orinda (Hoekhorst Shiraz x Nephrim), owned by Suzy Pirard, Belgium. She was World Champion Mare at Paris in 1988.
Orinda (Hoekhorst Shiraz x Nephrim), owned by Suzy Pirard, Belgium. She was World Champion Mare at Paris in 1988.

Once one starts looking for Indian Magic descendants in Europe, one finds more and more, sometimes in quite unexpected places. The following summary of Indian Magic breeding in continental Europe is of necessity brief and doesn’t pretend to cover everything there is, which would be impossible within these limits.

The European country with the largest number of Indian Magic descendants is Holland. Most of the early foundation stock of that country was imported from Britain; later, the majority of imports came from Russia, and importations from Poland, Spain, and Egypt increased while those from Britain decreased. Still, Arabian breeding in the Netherlands rests on a solid Crabbet foundation and the Crabbet/Russian cross has become the most outstanding achievement of Dutch breeding.

Among the numerous imports from Britain in the 1960s and 1970s, there were 15 stallions and colts and 12 mares  and fillies descended from Indian Magic, including four direct get: the stallions Babur 1971 (x Roshina) and Hindostan 1969 (x Indira) and the mares Magic Gold 1966 (x Magnindra) and Shakra 1959 (x Rissada). Neither of the two Indian Magic sons left descent in Holland, but Babur was sold to Belgium and is still at stud there today. I do not know what became of Hindostan. Both mares were used for breeding and Shakra founded quite a family. Her daughter Al-Madina, by *Achim NSB 300044 (1967), was the dam of the licensed stallion Rondeels Jof and her daughter Rondeels Jacaranda (1974) was exported to Britain.

Of the 15 male Indian Magic descendants imported to Holland, only five were used for breeding there (two others were exported and used elsewhere): Jedaan 1963 (Blue Domino x Shakra, by Indian Magic), Lurex 1968 (Ludrex x Yemama, by Indian Magic), Rissaz 1965 (Indriss by Indian Magic x Kazra), Romeo Boy 1972 (Silver Rain by Indian Magic x Rose (iiu)), and Valiant of Yeomans 1972 (Nizzolan x Miss Valentine of Yeomans by Indriss). The stallion used most, and most successful with his offspring, was Rissaz. Three of his daughters, Risico, Risham Torsi, and Farce Mineur, produced stallions that were licensed in two countries-Risico’s son Bajadere and Risham Torsi’s son Squire of Risham (by Lurex, and thus double Indian Magic) were sold to West Germany. Rissaz had three breeding sons, Oosterveldt’s Marsaz, Hoekhorst Shiraz, and Pandaz, of which Hoekhorst Shiraz has the distinction of having sired a World Champion, the mare Orinda who is owned by Suzy Pirard of Belgium. Pandaz, who was foaled in 1976 and is out of the Aswan mare Pandora, was leased for two seasons to Lodge Farm in England, the breeders of his sire, Rissaz. Lurex, the most look-alike of the Indian magic grandsons, also did well. Besides collecting numerous championships in the show ring, he sired two breeding stallions, Pjotre van Dennenoord out of a Russian mare and Luck out of the English import, Aunt Cara. Aunt Cara was one of the most successful English imports to Holland and herself descended from Indian Magic through her dam, Raffinda, who was by the Indian Magic son, Indian Fakir. She produced a whole string of successful foals in Holland, including the above mentioned Luck, the stallions Jaguar, by Gon, and Apollo van Heel, by *Abdullanhhh 277145, and the mare Roos, also by *Abdullahhh, who did very well at international shows and later went to Italy as a foundation mare. However, Aunt Cara’s half-sister Zelda possibly outdid her, if only by producing Naomi, by Darjeel. Naomi, who was of course pure Crabbet/Old English, produced the lovely World Champion Amal, again by *Abdullahhh. Amal’s sons and daughters are a presence very much felt in European show rings at present. His son Aichal was sold to West Germany and was licensed for breeding at two years of age, after having been named Reserve Champion Colt at his very first show. Naomi’s younger son Hamourabi, by Warandes Plakat, is also doing well and was licensed in Belgium last year.

Another Indian Fakir daughter, Hamu, was also imported to Holland together with her filly Indian Zasha, by Indian Flame II, who was double Indian Magic. Hamu’s most successful produce in Holland is the 1972 mare Minouche, who has produced several prize-winning daughters, mostly by Plakat. One of them, Beeghom, was exported to West Germany.

The Indian Magic granddaughters Sky Minuet 1975 (indriss x Masqueen) produced the rather curiously named Mr. Richards van de Coryon, by the Egyptian Hamasa Zarif, a fine liver chestnut stallion who is also doing well in Holland.

Arabian breeding in Belgium is heavily linked with Holland, since the two countries are next to each other and there is a frequent exchange of breeding stock. With 19-year-old Babur, Belgium can currently lay claim to having the only living Indian Magic son in continental Europe. Of 59 purebred stallions licensed for breeding in Belgium in 1989, 9 were descendants of Indian Magic. Apart from Babur, they were:

Daby (Hoekhorset Shiraz by Rissaz x Nephrim)
Hedera (Nabiel Moniet, “S” x Samindriss by Indriss)
Rondeel’s Jof (Littel Star x Al-Madina out of Shakra)
Sheer Insouciance (Crystal Majesty x Sheer Scindiscretion) imp. from England.
Sahab-Rahal (Shahal x Rissana by Rissaz)
Torrero (Gon x Risham Torsi by Rissaz) bred in Holland.
Hamourabi (Warandes Plakat x Noami out of Zelda)
Rishmars Salazar (Carrick Crystif x Salonica) imp. from England.

West Germany is a country where English bloodlines are popular only with a small minority; nevertheless, it also has its share of Indian Magic blood. The stud book lists 11 English mares descended from Indian Magic, including three Rissaz daughters imported from Holland; the others are from England, and all are or were used for breeding. The Indian Magic granddaughter Halo’s Miracle (Blue Halo x Rare Magic), imported in 1972, is so far the most successful. Her champion daughter Rikada has produced two licensed stallions and a very beautiful mare, Radina, who appears in Western riding demonstrations across the country. Shiriba (Crystal King x Hadassa), who traces to Indian Magic through her sire, was a regional champion last year and has several successful daughters. However, most of these mares are owned by small breeders who don’t do much showing.

There are at present 10 licensed stallions in West Germany which are descended from Indian Magic. First and foremost is Lurex, mentioned above under Holland. lurex was actually imported first to West Germany in 1970, then sold to Holland a few years later without leaving any offspring. In 1981, after having made a name for himself in Holland, Lurex took part in a major international show in Germany where he won the stallion championship, beating the phenomenally successful Plakat. Shortly after that, he was purchased  by German breeder and Crabbet enthusiast Dr. Reeber, who has owned him since then. He has not been heavily used in Germany but does have some get, including the stallion Squire of Risham, who is an active trail and endurance horse with Dr. Reeber’s daughter.

The other 8 Indian Magic stallions in Germany are:

Aichal (Amal x Aicha) imp. from Holland.
Aziz Agamemnon (Ahmoun x Kamisha) imp. from England.
Bajadere (Mufag x Risico by Rissaz) imp. from Holland.
Brave Warrior (Magic Argosy x Nourella) imp. from England.
HH Raskal (Gharib x Rozita by Samba) bred in Germany.
Indian Fire (Indian Flame II x Yanni) imp. from England.
Safrano (Aboud x Dancing Rose) imp. from England.

The most recent of these imports, Safrano, has been very successful. He was regional champion at his first show and passed his stallion performance test with  very high marks, only missing class I by 0.5 points.

Switzerland is another country which, like Holland, initially imported its foundation stock from Britain and later switched to other countries, in this case most notably Spain and Egypt. Of the Swiss foundation horses, several were Indian Magic descendants, including the influential stallions Silver Spurs (Silver Rain by Indian Magic x Jael) and Shah Jehan (Sha’ir x Saidi). Shah Jehan traced to Indian Magic through his sire Sha’ir whose second dam was the Indian Magic daughter *Mellawieh 20425. He sired many broodmares and a well known licensed Shagya-Arabian stallion, Shamasi, who is also a successful eventer-a rather unusual venue for a horse of Arabian breeding. Among the English mares imported to Switzerland was one Indian Magic daughter, Kamelia, who was out pf Kazra, which made her a ¼ sister to Holland’s Rissaz. Kamelia’s owner, Mrs. Ursula Rahm, also imported the Indian Magic granddaughter Aphala (Scindian Magic x Shifala) who produced the fine stallion Arkit. Other imports include the two mares Eastern Legend and Eastern Charm, by Eastern Magic, a son of *Touch of Magic 30310 and his only son who ever stood in Britain.

France has at least one line to Indian Magic through the mare Vandella, a daughter of the Indian Magic grandson Magic Argosy. Vandella was the foundation mare of the Domaine de Maury stud. Bred mostly to Polish and Russian stallions, she produced the successful stallions Vanrex de Maury (by Alrex), Valery al Maury (by Diarex), and Viking al Maury (by *Nego 299881), and the mare Vanessa al Maury (by *Arbo). All have done well at international shows.

Italy has been importing at a furious rate during the last few years, principally from Britain and Holland but also from Poland, West Germany, and Denmark. Since modern Arabian breeding in Italy is still in its infancy, one can’t really judge which influences will turn out to be the strongest in the long run. However, Indian Magic blood has already arrived on the scene from various sources: the Amal sons Asmar and Abdesalam and the Aunt Cara daughter Roos from Holland, the stallion Indian Rakosi from Denmark, and of course various imports directly from Britain.

The Scandinavian countries have been breeding Arabians for many years, mostly with a strong emphasis on Polish bloodlines. But some foundation horses came from Britain and also left their mark and several of them were descended from Indian Magic. The Crabbet-bred stallion Samba (Bright Shadow x Simra by Indian Magic) was one of them; he was later sold to West Germany where he might still be living, but in any event he no longer breeds. His daughter Rozita was also exported to Germany and is the dam of the licensed stallion HH Raskal. In Denmark, the stallion Indian Grodust is descended from Indian Magic through his dam Indian Stardust, and Indian Magic granddaughter. He is the sire of the above-mentioned Indian Rakosi and of the two mares Indian Silla and Indian Yasmine who were also sold to Italy. The Indian Magic granddaughter Crystal Haze (General Grant x Comforts Caravel) produced several foals in Sweden, as has Shamina (ex Futti), a granddaughter of the Indian Magic son Shirar, in Denmark. Denmark was also the home of Chimene (Ali Ban x Indian Trinket), and Indian Magic great-granddaughter. Chimene’s daughter Aziza was sold to West Germany and has produce there.

Since I do not have the Scandinavian stud books, this part is particularly sketchy, being based almost entirely on horses which were exported from Scandinavian countries. Nevertheless, it should serve to give a brief impression.

Finally, not to be forgotten, there are Arabians in Austria as well, and there is a licensed stallion, Roy, whose dam, Luisa, is a granddaughter of the Indian Magic son Indian Flame II.

This brief survey should illustrate that Indian Magic blood is present in all European countries where Arabian breeding is mostly in the hands of private breeders, rather than state and/or military stud farms.

**All of the articles included in the newly re-launched site from the original website, Georgia Cheer, Silver Monarch Publishing and The Crabbet Influence magazine are shared here with permission of Georgia Cheer on May 16, 2012.**

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Indian Magic: Wentworth Superhorse

Indian Magic: Wentworth Superhorse

By Arlene Magid, visit Arlene online at
**originally published in the July-August 1990 The Crabbet Influence in Arabians Today magazine.


Indian Magic
Indian Magic

Lady Wentworth strove for decades to achieve what she considered to be the ultimate Arabian-a horse of type and extraordinary presence, with superb motion, and larger size to appeal to those for whom Arabians were a bit small. She bred her masterpiece in Indian Magic, foaled at Crabbet in 1944. He embodied the concept of the “Wentworth Superhorse” and none who saw him could forget his dynamic qualities. He was described by the noted Crabbet breeder Rosemary Archer in the Spring 1983 Arab Horse Society News: “High tail carriage, superb action and regal bearing were some of the most important attributes of Indian Magic which he passed on to his progeny. It is noteworthy that the characteristics most often associated with sons of Crabbet ‘N’ line mares, particularly their superb fronts and splendid way of moving, were personified in Indian Magic.”

Lady Anne Lytton, daughter of Lady Wentworth, wrote Indian Magic’s obituary in the Autumn 1972 issue of Arab Horse Society News: “His head took time to refine, but ended as a sharply chiseled piece of carving, perhaps long but quite in keeping with his size and very tapering, eye well placed and beautiful small ears. He had not got the extra curved neck of Skowronek or Raktha, but his own was the right one for his size. His magnificent shoulder he passed on to his offspring. I think what struck one most about him were his limbs, four of the best, but he carried his tail as a flag-surely with that size and bone he must move heavily, but no, he was light as air in his tread and floated along with ease and splendour. If he had temperament, what genius has not? He was no child’s pet but very much a one man’s horse and this one Fred Rice, who managed him to perfection for the greater part of his long life, but he disliked the touch of a stranger.”

Indian Magic was not shown a great deal. He was a controversial horse due to his size (reportedly 15.2 hands). He did well as long as he was not shown under a judge who was prejudiced against size. Lady Anne Lytton mentions: “He invariably appeared to be head and shoulder above the crowd, not merely because of his height but because of his proud carriage.” Indian Magic’s show record included eight first places at halter in 1956, including Champion at the Royal show. In 1957 he was named Champion Stallion at the Arab Horse Society Show at Roehampton, the British equivalent of National Champion Stallion. He won a blue in halter at the Richmond Show in 1958, and at age eighteen was Champion Stallion at the Hindon show. Lady Anne’s assessment of Indian Magic expresses why breeders worldwide consider him a most valuable  horse to have in a pedigree: “So much has been said about the loss of type as soon as the 15 hand mark is overstepped. This was not so with Indian Magic. Lady Wentworth sought to breed the best big Arab ever seen while retaining true Arabian type. I have always regarded him as the masterpiece and hallmark of her dynasty.”

Raktha, sire of Indian Magic
Raktha, sire of Indian Magic

Indian Magic’s parents were both significant horses at Crabbet. His sire, Raktha, was the leading progenitor of the Naseem sire line in England. Raktha’s get include *Silver Drift, who sired 17 North American national winners (ten of them national champions or reserves), and *Serafix, the leading Crabbet sire of all time with 124 champions and 41 national winners. Raktha’s son General Grant sired British National Champion Mare Eloia and British Reserve National Champion General Dorsaz whose get have produced British National Champions. Raktha’s daughters were fine broodmares. *Silwa, a halter champion in America, produced four American champions including her important daughter, U.S. Top Ten Mare *Silwara, dam of four national winners including Canadian National Champion Stallion Tornado and Canadian National Champion Mare Silver Charm. His daughter Grey Royal produced 1956 British Reserve National Champion Stallion Royal Crystal, 1958 East Coast Champion Mare *Crown of Destiny, and *Royal Diamond (sire of British National Champion Mare Silver Grey and 15 American champions including U.S. National Champion Western Pleasure AOTR Royal Mace). She is also also the dam of the double Raktha granddaughter *Serafire, a 1958 U.S. Top Ten Mare whose only two foals were national winners in America. (Grey Royal is the granddam of the triple Raktha mares SX Geniis Pride+++ and Magic Genii++, both national champions and producers of national winners.)

Indian Magic’s dam, Indian Crown, was not a prolific broodmare, but she also produced his half-sister Incoronetta (by Dargee), named 1964 British Reserve National Champion Mare and dam of three British national winners. These include 1963 British Reserve Junior Champion Female *Silvanetta (dam of three American champions including U.S. Top Ten Pleasure Driving Baskanette++). Incoronetta also produced 1968 British Junior Champion Female African Queen (by Oran), and 1973 British National Champion Mare Azara (by Manto). Indian Crown was a full-sister to *Indaia, imported by Roger Selby. *Indaia founded a very significant family in America as she produced four producers of National winners including Indraff (sire of 11 National winners and of 53 producers of National winners). The great broodmare sire Rapture (sire of 6 National winners in halter) was a grandson of *Indaia.

Indian Magic sired a total of 94 get registered in Britain before his death in 1972 at age 28 (his last foals were foaled the year he died). Forty-nine of his offspring were male, and 44 were female of those registered in England. Of interest is that during his early years at stud he sired more mares (a ratio of 2:1), but at the end of his life his male offspring outnumbered his female almost 3:1! (Indian Magic also had one son imported en-utero to America and not included in his registered foals in Britain, and there may have been others exported en-utero as well). Of Indian Magic’s get, 24 are known to have been exported. Of these, 12 went to North America. Of his seven sons exported to North America, six had registered progeny, and all of these sired champions (four sired national winners). Four won show ring honors themselves. Of Indian magic’s five daughters who came to America, three produced national winners.


The first Indian Magic offspring to be imported was his daughter *Serafire (ex Grey Royal), imported by John Rogers in 1952. She was named a 1958 U.S. Top Ten Mare. She produced just two foals in America, but both were national winners: 1962 U.S. Top Ten Mare Starfire (by *Serafix and thus triple Raktha), and 1967 U.S. National Champion Mare Indian Genii. Starfire died shortly after her National win without progeny, but Indian Genii produced 5 champions including U.S. Reserve National Champion Pleasure Driving Magic Genii++ (dam of national winners in halter and performance) and U.S. Reserve National Champion Mare SX Geniis Pride+++ (also a national winner producer).

The second Indian Magic offspring to be imported came to America in 1956 at age four. He was *Electric Storm (ex Silfina), and was imported by Nancy Magro. *Electric Storm was an English pleasure champion in America. He sired 149 registered get, 44 of them champions and eight of them National winners. He is thus Indian Magic’s most successful son imported to the U.S. His National winners were U.S. Top Ten Formal Driving Dun Kray Ahabi++, U.S. Top Ten Pleasure Driving Ima Electric+++, U.S. Top Ten English Pleasure AOTR Kel Thor, U.S. National Champion English Pleasure JOTR Royal Crabbet+/, U.S. and Canadian Top Ten Park Electryon+, U.S. and Canadian Top Ten Western Pleasure AOTR Big Mama+++, U.S. and Canadian Top Ten Native Costume Electric Impulse+, and U.S. Top Ten Jumper Electric Shocker.

The next Indian Magic offspring imported went to Mr. and Mrs. J.L. Simpson of Alberta, Canada. He was *Raziri (x Rosinella), foaled in 1955 and imported in 1959. He died in 1968 and was used lightly at stud (he has just 28 registered get). Nonetheless, he sired a number of champions, including halter reserve champions Baziri and Zu Magic, park champion Razalissa, western pleasure reserve champion and pleasure driving amatuer champion Roaziri, Regions 7 and 8 Champion Gelding and Region 8 Champion English Pleasure AOTR and Top Five Pleasure Driving Sir Magic++, 1968 U.S. Top Five Futurity Mare Pure Magic, and U.S. Top Ten Jumper and twice U.S. Top Ten Jumper CHF Sarazi. *Raziri’s daughters were successful broodmares, with Pure Magic producing 4 champions and his daughter Valri producing 5, including Canadian national Champion Futurity Stallion and U.S. Top Ten Futurity Stallion Ashir.

Two daughters of Indian Magic were imported to America in 1961. *Mellawieh (ex Mifaria) was a ten year old imported by Lewis Payne of Oklahoma. She has four American foals, and her daughter *Qatifah (by Manto) produced 2 champions. The other mare was *Magic Ribbon (ex *Blue Raffia), imported as a yearling by Frank Smathers of Florida. She has six registered foals. Four are champions: western pleasure reserve champion FF Magic Image (by Reymage), English pleasure reserve champions FF Graciela (by Ansata Ibn Sudan) and FF Burma (by Witezfix++) and halter champion FF Snow Fire (by *Bask++).

In 1964 four different Indian Magic get were imported by James F. Lewis of Virginia. *Zilla (x Silent Wings) was a four year old and a full-sister to British Junior Champion Female Yemama. Her five foals in America do not have any champions tracing to them at present. *Flying Storm (x Taima) was a ten year old at time of importation and produced four American foals, including U.S. Top Ten English Pleasure and English Pleasure AOTR Magic Aurab+. *Lewisfield Magic=/ (x *Michelia) was imported en-utero. He was a successful show horse, with championships in halter and English pleasure, reserve championships in park, and was named 1970 U.S. National Champion Western Pleasure. He has sired 127 registered get, including Legion of Merit winner Burr Hill Magic Touch+ and U.S. and Canadian Top ten Sidesaddle Burr Hill Mysterian+. The final Lewis import was *Touch of Magic (x *Indian Diamond), who was seven when imported. He was a successful jumper in England, and sired 93 registered get in America. Four won National titles: 1973 U.S. Top Ten Mare Lewisfield Sprite (dam of 4 champions), 1975 U.S. Top Ten English Pleasure Lewisfield Lulu++, 1989 Canadian Top Ten Show Hack Myster Magic, and six time National winner Indian Bay (whose titles include U.S. National Champion Hunter and Canadian Reserve National Champion Hunter).

*Silver Moonlight
*Silver Moonlight

The next Indian Magic import was also the oldest at time of importation. *Silver Moonlight (ex Silver Fire) was originally exported to Australia, and was imported to America at age 20 in 1969 by Andrew Sharf of California. He was a successful sire in Australia where his get included Australian Reserve National Champion Mare Electric Moon. Due to his advanced age, he got just 13 U.S. registered foals, two of them halter champions (GF Silver Lark and Moonlight Fantasy).

An Indian Magic son was imported to Canada in 1970. He is *Indian Vanity++, four years old at the time of his importation by Margaret Fifield of Ontario. His dam is Silver Ripple, making him a three-quarter brother to British National Champion Stallion Silver Flame. *Indian Vanity++ had a good show career, being named 1973 Region 10 Top Five Stallion and Reserve Champion English Pleasure. He was awarded his Legion of Merit in 1975. He has no American-registered progeny.

The final Indian Magic son to be imported is *RAS Indian Silver (known in England as Indian Silver). He was out of Dalika. Prior to his importation at age six in 1976 *RAS Indian Silver sired 10 foals in Britain, including supreme halter champion *Aliha Ahs (also a halter champion in America) and the good broodmare Kasbana. After his importation by the Rhodes Arabian Stud of New York, *RAS Indian Silver won English pleasure reserve championships and sired American champions such as halter champion Silver Bear.

Besides the twelve offspring exported to North America, Indian Magic had twelve other get exported from Britain. His daughter Silver Magic (a full-sister to *Silver Moonlight) went to Australia after producing her son Silvadoris by Oran. Indian Magic’s son Rossfennick (a full-brother to *Raziri) was exported to Australia as a youngster. The Indian Magic daughter Shamarina (x Sharfina) went to Chile. Another daughter, Shakra (x Rissada), went to Holland. Another daughter who went to South America was Mandahyla ( x Myolanda), who was exported to Argentina in 1977 as a twelve-year-old. Indian Magic’s daughter Magic Gold (x Sunset) went to Australia as a youngster. The Indian Magic son Hindostan (x Indira) was exported to Holland. The Indian Magic daughter Kamelia (x Kazra) was the Reserve Champion Mare  at the Royal Lancashire Show in 1971 and produced two foals in Britain before being exported to Switzerland in 1976. Another daughter, Soumana of Fairfield (x Hadassa), had 11 foals in Britain before being exported to Sweden in 1984. The Indian Magic son Babur (x Roshina) went to Belgium as a two-year-old. Bint El Sehr (x Muzri) went to Australia as a two-year-old. The last foal of Indian Magic, the stallion Carrik Indianora (x Nerinora), was exported to Israel as a four-year-old.

Of the Indian Magic get remaining in Britain, six achieved National wins. Yemama (x Silent Wings) was the 1962 British Junior Champion Female. Majal (x Mifaria) was the 1968 British Junior Champion Male and 1969 Reserve Junior Champion Male. Astur (x Rissalma) was the 1969 Junior Champion Male, 1970 Reserve Supreme Champion Stallion and 1971 Reserve Champion Stallion at the British Nationals. In 1972 Fanfara (x Tarantella) was named the Reserve Junior Champion Female. The 1974 British Reserve Ridden Champion was the Indian Magic son Silver Rain (x Silver Sheen). Indian Magic’s daughter Magenta (x Magindra) was named 1979 British Reserve National Champion Mare (and her foal was named the National Champion Foal that year). Local champions in Britain by Indian Magic include his daughter Comforts Caravel (x Extra Special), a reserve champion at halter, Indian Flame II (x Nerinora), champion stallion at the 1968 Bath and West Show, Shirar (x Sirella), champion stallion at age 12 in 1977 at both the Bath and West and Royal Windsor shows, halter champions Blue Magician (x Karpathia), and Indian Diadem (x Dancing Diamond) who sired the 1984 Israeli National Champion Stallion Triple Crown.

Of the 70 Indian Magic progeny who remained in Britain, 21 left no registered progeny. Of the remaining 49, several proved quite prolific. His son Scindian Magic sired 86 registered get through Volume 15 of the A.H.S. Studbook and his son Indriss has get registered through the same volume. His daughter Indian Starlight had 12 foals, as did his daughters Comforts Caravel and Magic Pearl. Ten Indian Magic get produced British National winners. His son Astur sired 1972 British National Champion Gelding Silver Splendour. His son Indriss has sired two National winners: 1974 Junior Champion Male Nasib (later exported to Oman), and 1979 Reserve National Champion Gelding Sky Monarch. Special mention must be made also of Indriss’ daughter Kazminda, named National CHampion Foal in 1970 and winner of the Princess Muna Saddle of Honour in 1985 abd 1986 for Best Progeny Group at the British Nationals. Six of her foals are champions in Britain, Europe, and Brazil. Indian Magic’s son Scindian Magic sired 1974 and 1977 British Supreme Champion and 1975 and 1976 Reserve Supreme Champion Mare Sheer Magic (considered by many to be one of the most beautiful mares ever foaled in Britain). His son Indian Flame II has sired 2 National winners: 1975 Reserve National Champion Gelding Sharukh and 1982 Reserve Supreme Stallion and Champion Senior Stallion Silver Flame. Majal, another Indian Magic son, sired 1975 Rserve Ridden Champion Zahal. His son Indian Star is the sire of 1976 Reserve Champion Gelding Dancing Apollo. His son Silver Rain sired 1981 National Ridden Champion and Reserve Champion Gelding Silver Knight. Three Indian Magic daughters have produced National winners in Britain. His daughter Marinella is the dam of 1974 Junior Female Champion and 1977 Reserve Champion Mare Vonitsa (who is double Indian Magic as her sire, Magic Argosy, is an Indian Magic grandson). Indian Magic’s daughter Enchantment was dam of 1979 Junior Champion Male Midnight Gold. Another daughter, Indian Starlight, produced 1961 Junior Champion Male and 1962 Reserve Supreme Champion Male Blue Magic.

Indian Magic lived up to his name for he enchanted all who saw him, whether at home or in the show ring. He achieved a new standard in the show ring (much as *Bask++ did in America) when he gained acceptance for the larger type of classic Arabian horse. His wizardry extended to siring exceptional get who passed on his type, motion, and presence. Indian Magic’s influence is truly an international one, felt throughout Europe, North and South America, and Australia.

**All of the articles included in the newly re-launched site from the original website, Georgia Cheer, Silver Monarch Publishing and The Crabbet Influence magazine are shared here with permission of Georgia Cheer on May 16, 2012.**

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The Sharf Ranch and Four of the Five Earliest Arabian Imports to North America from Australasia

The Sharf Ranch and Four of the

Five Earliest Arabian Imports to

North America from Australasia

By Carol Woodbridge Mulder © 1990
** originally published in the July-August 1990 The Crabbet Influence in Arabians Today magazine.

*Silver Moonlight 53652 in Australia.
*Silver Moonlight 53652 in Australia.

Among the many horse farms located in the beautiful Santa Ynez Valley, Santa Barbara County, California, is one with a rather unusual breeding program of special interest.

Andrew G. Sharf, M.D., and his wife, Maureen, own the Sharf Ranch. In 1969 Dr. Sharf imported the first Arabian horse ever brought to America from Australia. In 1970 he imported two more from Australia and one from New Zealand. Today the Sharf herd of about 30 Arabians contains many descendants of this stock.

Dr. Sharf, a vascular surgeon, always liked horses as a boy. While growing up, he spent his summers on farms with horses. Most of his youthful experience was with Quarter Horses and Appaloosas. Mrs. Sharf also has loved horses from childhood. She bought her first horse at an auction before she was married and learned the hard way that the poor animals had problems and had been drugged for the sale. Her next attempt at owning horses was a half-Arabian. The Sharfs bought their first purebred Arabian in 1967 from Bud and Louise Adams in New Mexico. This horse was the 1960 chestnut gelding Hasann 16824 (Hasarip 3025 x Tamaran 7098). The Sharfs found Hasann so well suited to their requirements that they bought, that same year, two more Arabians from Mr. and Mrs. Adams: the 1967 grey colt Mrauder 40997 (Ibn Mraff 12295 x Meteza 8020) and the 1959 grey mare Musette 15010 (Mujahid 9083 x Alican 3466). Soon after he was named a junior champion in 1967, the 1964 chestnut colt Elsinor Bodacious 27831 (*Muzulmanin 20465 x Alleyna 2612) was purchased from Charles Doner of California. In March 1990 when I visited the Sharf Ranch, Elsinor Bodacious, then aged 25, was the oldest of the four current Sharf stallions. It was a special thrill for me to see this son of the great broodmare Alleyna whom I had known well when I was a young woman.

The Arabians the Sharfs owned by the end of 1967 were domiciled at the Tule Peak Ranch the Sharfs then owned. It consisted of some 1400 acres of high desert land in Riverside County, California. There were spacious natural grass pastures and irrigated acreage where alfalfa was raised. Ben Zarate was the ranch manager and trainer.

Duties connected with Dr. Sharf’s profession sometimes took him to other parts of the world. Kim Conley, a good friend, had told the Sharfs about the Crabbet blood carried by many Australasian Arabians so when Dr. Sharf was in Australia in 1968 he managed to make time to see some of these horses and bought one.

*Silver Moonlight 53652 was the first Arabian to come to North America from Australia. He arrived in the United States on March 21, 1969, more than two months before the second Australian import, *Ralvon Sundowner 61142, was brought over by Wayne Newton on June 10, 1969.

*Silver Moonlight was a grey foaled January 28, 1949. He was bred by Crabbet Stud in England where he was foaled. He was taken to Australia in 1951 by Mrs. A.D.D. MacLean for her Fenwick Stud in Victoria. *Silver Moonlight’s next Australian owner was Sir Clarence Legget, Oxford Stud, Queensland. Later he was owned by the Queensland Agricultural High School and College, Lawes, Queensland.

Between the years 1951 and 1961, *Silver Moonlight won all the Royal Shows in Victoria at Melbourne, in New South Wales at Sydney, and in Queensland at Brisbane.

*Silver Moonlight had a good reputation in Australia; he was successful and popular. He had begun his stud career in Australia soon after his arrival there at age 2 and he continued  in stud service up to the time of his export to America. During his 18 years in Australia, *Silver Moonlight  got 75 purebred foals – 39 sons and 36 daughters.

*Silver Moonlight was 20 when he arrived in California. Dr. Sharf wanted to give his aged treasure the best possible chance at stud. The Sharfs had purchased the outstanding 1964 grey mare Myla 27945 (Farlowa 8545 x Gamyla 4261) and she was bred to *Silver Moonlight.  Dr. Sharf made an arrangement with Heritage Hills Arabians, Inc., Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and eight of their fine mares produced 1970 foals by *Silver Moonlight. Four outside mares came to the horse.

*Silver Moonlight stood only one season in the United States because he tragically died early in the fall of 1969. He had been given a sulpha medication for a cold, but there was a drop in his white count and he died.

All of *Silver Moonlight’s 13 American foals were born in 1970, the year after his death. There were 11 fillies and only two colts. *Silver Moonlight’s total number of get, on both sides of the world, was 88 of which 47% were colts and 53% fillies.

*Silver Moonlight was superbly well bred. His sire, Indian Magic, considered the best of the latter day Crabbet sires. A grey, he combined his unusually large size of 15.2½ hands with beautiful classic Arabian type. Indian Magic’s 1972 death, at age 28, marked the final end of the illustrious breeding history of Crabbet Stud. *Silver Moonlight was one of seven Indian Magic sons to come to North America. *Silver Moonlight’s dam, Silver Fire, also grey, was one of the best Crabbet matrons of her era. *Silver Moonlight was one of only two of her sons to come to North America and Dr. Sharf brought the other one too.

Probably the most interesting feature of *Silver Moonlight’s pedigree was his linebreeding tot he great and beautiful Skowronek son Naseem. *Silver Moonlight was the product of a Naseem grandson put to a Naseem daughter. Naseem, noted particularly for the excellence of his head and neck, attained world influence. He was not only a great sire in England, but also in Russia where he went in 1936.

After *Silver Moonlight’s death, the Sharfs determined to try again. By means of correspondence they found *Silver Sparklee 67109 in New Zealand, he was called Silver Sparkle in New Zealand and his native England. The extra ‘e’ was added to his name in the United States because the American Arabian stud books already had a different Silver Sparkle recorded. The Sharfs bought *Silver Sparklee by telephone, sight unseen, on the basis of photographs which had been sent to them. They were particularly impressed with a picture showing a child riding him. They were also impressed with the beauty of his head and neck as shown in the pictures. *Silver Sparklee arrived in the United States by air-as had *Silver Moonlight in 1969-on February 11, 1970. He was accompanied by *Ranald 67110.

*Silver Sparklee was then 23 years old. A grey, he was foaled January 22, 1947. He was bred by and foaled at Crabbet Stud in England. He was a half-brother to *Silver Moonlight out of the same dam, the glorious Silver Fire. *Silver Sparklee was sired by the chestnut Oran bred by Lady Yule, but of 100% Crabbet lineage and a leading sire at Crabbet. *Silver Sparklee was something similar to a three-quarter brother to *Silver Vanity22555; they were by the same sire and *Silver Sparklee’s dam was *Silver Vanity’s second dam.

*Silver Sparklee was sold by Lady Wentworth in 1948, as a yearling, to William Booth, Carterton, North Island, New Zealand. The price was reputedly 1,500 pounds sterling. Mr. Booth, a retired merchant, stood *Silver Sparklee at public stud; his ads for the horse reportedly contained the exclusion”no common mares entertained.” In 1965, when he was 18, *Silver Sparklee was acquired by Lester Marshall for his Holly Farm. It was from Mr. Marshall that the Sharfs bought *Silver Sparklee.

During *Silver Sparklee’s nearly 22 years in New Zealand he got many half-Arabian foals, but only 19 purebreds. Of these, 9 were sons and 20 were daughters; through some of these get *Silver Sparklee has descendants today in Australia as well as in New Zealand.

*Silver Sparklee got only two foals, both colts, in California before his sudden and dismaying death caused by an arterial aneurysm in the late spring of 1970. His two 1972 American sons were both bred by Ernest C. Golden, California, who had also bred to of the American *Silver Moonlight foals. Only one of *Silver Sparklee’s American sons bred on-GF Silver Mirage 70207. Because they bred no *Silver Sparklee foals from the horse before his death, the Sharfs have none of his blood today.

Among those with whom Dr. Sharf corresponded in late 1969, after *Silver Moonlight’s death, was L.A. Campbell, Santarabia Stud, Luddenham, New South Wales. Mr. Campbell offered Dr. Sharf two stallions, *Ranald 67110 and *Crescentt 67111. The pedigrees of both are 100% Crabbet although both were bred by Mrs. A.D.D. MacLean, Fenwick Stud. If one goes back in the pedigrees, the ancestors are all found to also be ancestors of American Crabbet descendants, but it is of interest to see the different ways the blood was combined by a different breeder in a different country; this individuality is what eventually gives a breeding program a more or less personalized stamp reflecting the dreams of the breeder.

*Ranald 67110 imported from Australia by the Sharfs
*Ranald 67110 imported from Australia by the Sharfs

*Ranald was a bay marked with a small star, left front fetlock, right front coronet, and socks both hind. He was foaled October 23, 1961, and was, therefore, 8 years old when he arrived in the United States. His sire was the bay *Riffal, bred by Lady Yule in England and exported to Mrs. MacLean in Australia ni 1947 at age 11. *Riffal was surely one of the tallest Arabs on authentic record; he stood 16.0¼ hands. In his prime *Riffal was a handsome horse. He had important success as a sire in both England and Australia; among his English sons was the very important Crabbet sire Oran. *Ranald’s dam was *Rizala, a chestnut bred by Crabbet Stud and taken to Australia by Mrs. MacLean as a 4 year old in 1947.

*Ranald was used on some of Mr. Campbell’s own mares in Australia and got winning stock. In the United States, he sired a total of 28 foals over a span of thirteen stud seasons. His first get arrived in 1971 and his last in 1983. He had 14 sons and 14 daughters. Four of his 1971 and 1972 get were out of the Heritage Hills mares which had originally been shipped to California for *Silver Moonlight. Two others were the results of outside breedings of which one was an Ernest Golden mare. All the other *Ranald get were bred by the Sharfs and some were out of *Silver Moonlight and *Crescentt daughters.

*Ranald died in the fall of 1988 at age 27. He had been bathed and then turned out in his large grassed paddock. He capered about with such verve that Mrs. Sharf watched him from the window of the house, enjoying his happiness. A short time later she again went to the window to see what he was doing and she saw him lying quietly dead, apparently from a heart attack.

*Crescentt did not come to the United States with *Silver Sparklee or *Ranald. He arrived separately more than a month later, on March 28, 1970. He was shipped by sea aboard the Stratus which put in at San Pedro, California, after a voyage of three weeks. The ship had passed through a terrific ocean storm. *Crescentt traveled in a box with a window and was cared for by a sailor who accompanied the horse all the way to the Tule Peak Ranch.

In Australia, *Crescentt’s name was Crescent. The extra ‘t’ had to be added to his name in the United States because there was a prior Crescent already registered with Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc.

Foaled October 1, 1962, *Crescentt was 7 years old when he came to America. A chestnut, he was marked with a blaze, right front fetlock, and right hind three-quarter stocking. He was sired by *Sindh, a chestnut *Silver Vanity son. *Sindh was bred by Crabbet Stud in England and was taken to Australia as a 3 year old in 1961 by Mrs. A.D.D. MacLean; *Crescentt was from *Sindh’s first foal crop. *Sindh reportedly stood a very tall 15.3 hands. He became one of the foremost Arabian stallions of his time in Australia. *Crescentt’s chestnut dam, Carla, was bred by Mrs. MacLean from two English imports to Australia-*Shafreyn from Crabbet and *Carlina from Lady Yule. An interesting feature of *Crescentt’s pedigree is that he was a double great-grandson of the mare Sharfina who was herself a double granddaughter of the stallion Shareer. *Crescentt also carried another line to Shareer via *Royal Diamond 12906 who was a great-grandson of that horse; in other words, *Crescentt’s maternal grandsire, Shafreyn, was distinctly linebred to Shareer with three crosses to him within four generations. This multiple use of Shareer as seen in *Crescentt’s pedigree is unusual for the United States and Mrs. MacLean’s choice to breed a Sharfina grandson to a Sharfina granddaghter was, in itself, rather unusual.

In addition to his Royal Show wins already mentioned, *Crescentt was Reserve Cahmpion at a Royal Show before he was 4 years old and the next year was named Australian National Show Champion Stallion.

*Crescentt was trained to ride.

In Australia *Crescentt was used on some of Mr. Campbell’s own mares and got winning stock. *Crescentt got a total of 28 foals in the United States; there were 18 colts and 10 fillies. This was 64% colts and 36% fillies. He was used at stud for eleven seasons from the years 1970 through 1980; his foals arrived from 1971 through 1981. Six of his foals were from the arrangement with Heritage Hills with their mares and two foals were bred by the Sharfs. Some of these were from *Silver Moonlight daughters, but none were from *Ranald mares. Endurance people have liked *Crescentt stock.

*Crescentt died in 1980, at age 18, of an obstruction and resulting colic.

After the death of his owner, Dr. Sharf rescued the 1953 chestnut stallion Witezan 8552 (*Witez II 3933 x Gezana 4074) from a starving situation. This superbly well bred horse had won many championships in American shows. Witezan was a horse of truly outstanding type and quality, one of the best sons of his great sire. Witezan became the first American Arabian stallion exported to Australia. He went L.A. Campbell, Santarabia Stud; thus Mr. Campbell sent two stallions to America and replaced them with one American horse.

In 1982 the Sharfs moved all of their horses to their present ranch at Santa Ynez. From this lovely place, of some 20 more or less flat acres, one sees wonderful views of the distant mountains forming the valley. The ranch has its own well and there are 12 acres of irrigated permanent pastures. There are 34 stalls, each measuring 12 x 14 feet, in two different barns, one of which also houses the breeding facilities. There is a special horse laundry and a marvelous Aqua Tred, besides the usual exercise walker.

Mike Murillo manages the Sharf Ranch at Santa Ynez. He has been with the family since August 1978. In his native Mexico, Mike’s father was a wood chopper who used donkeys and mules in the mountains. Not only is Mike Murillo particularly good with the management, direction, and handling of the Sharf horses which are all superbly kept under happy and most pleasing conditions, but he is also exceptional at the general ranch management and supervision. As a ranch visitor, I was further impressed by Murillo’s knowledge of the horses and their histories.

The beautiful Sharf daughter, Sheri, has done a lot of successful showing of the ranch stock and is a very capable horsewoman. She has been a tremendous asset to the Sharf program.

As of March 25, 1990, there were seventeen Arabs at the Sharf Ranch carrying the blood of the imports from Austalia. They were:

Moonlight Apollo 67674, 1970 grey stallion. By *Silver Moonlight x Juna 16760 (Fadjur 7668 x Fer-Natta 6329).

Moonlight Miss 67668, 1970 grey mare. By *Silver Moonlight x Bint Fern-Natta 15612 (Fadjur 7668 x Fer-Natta 6329).

Moonlight Fame 64798, 1970 grey mare. By *Silver Moonlight x Myla 27945 (Farlowa 8545 x Gamyla 4261).

Cresta 82710, 1972 grey mare. By *Crescentt x Myla 27945 (Farlowa 8545 x Gamyla 4261).

Crista 101474, 1973 bay mare. By *Crescentt x Myla 27945 (Farlowa 8545 x Gamyla 4261).

Moonsera 112818, 1974 chestnut mare. By Moonlight Apollo (*Silver Moonlight) x Sera-Lu 36478 (*Serafix 8955 x Electra Lu 19302).

Silver Taffy 129646, 1975 grey mare. By *Silver Vanity 22555 (Oran x Silver Gilt) x Moonlight Fame (*Silver Moonlight). Silver Taffy has been sold since March 25th.

Sharinda 160047, 1977 chestnut mare. By *Crescentt x Sharfena 91794 (*Silver Vanity x Sera-Lu 36478).

Cristalle 160048, 1977 grey mare. By *Crescentt x Moonlight Fame (*Silver Moonlight).

Moon Chrissie 170327, 1978 grey mare. By Moonlight Apollo (*Silver Moonlight) x Crista (*Crescentt).

Moon Kari 170331, 1978 bay mare. By Moonlight Apollo (*Silver Moonlight) x Khreshara 42209 (Fadjur 7668 x Karredi 8503).

Moon Cassandra 190257, 1979 grey mare. By Moonlight Apollo (*Silver Moonlight) x Crista (*Crescentt).

Rasera 200307, 1979 bay mare. By *Ranald 67110 x Moonsera (Moonlight Apollo by *Silver Moonlight).

Nu Fanisha 320187, 1984 grey mare. By *Nuwas 244461 (Kilimanjaro x Nuwa) x Moonlight Fame (*Silver Moonlight).

AMS Premera 335996, 1985 bay mare. By *Pereth 290754 (Salah x Perina) x Ramera 231076 (*Ranald x Moonsera by Moonlight Apollo, son of *Silver Moonlight).

AMS Pearlessence 336337, 1985 grey mare. By *Pereth 290754 (Salah x Perina) x Silver Taffy (out of Moonlight Fame by *Silver Moonlight). This mare has been leased out since march 25th.

AMS Fames Fancy 415535, 1988 grey filly. By *Nuwas 244461 (Kilimajaro x Nuwa) x Moonlight Fame (*Silver Moonlight)

Two grey stallions have been imported from Germany by Dr. Sharf for use on the descendants of the Australian imports and the other Sharf mares. They are:

*Nuwas 244461, foaled in 1981. Bred by S. and H. Garde-Ehlert, Overath, West Germany. Imported December 12, 1981 at age almost ten months. Sire: Kilimanjaro (Aswan x Karta). Dam: Nuwa (Nuri Schalan x Nika).

*Pereth 290754, foaled in 1977. Bred by Wolfgang and Ingeburg Thorner, Melle, West Germany. Imported on September 7, 1983, at age 6. Sire: Salah (Ghazal x Seseneb). Dam: Perina (Kilimanjaro x Peri).

It was a most pleasurable experience for me to visit the Sharf Ranch, meet the Sharf family and Mike Murillo, and to follow through on the results of Dr. Sharf’s importations of Crabbet blood from Australia.

**All of the articles included in the newly re-launched site from the original website, Georgia Cheer, Silver Monarch Publishing and The Crabbet Influence magazine are shared here with permission of Georgia Cheer on May 16, 2012.**

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